Unformatted text preview: SFTY 409
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Book Requirements ERAU Blackboard Requirements
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– Emailed to Students Classmate Introductions Overturned Apparatus
What Happened – Individuals were going to fast around a corner on the
– Lost control of vehicle in the process. Investigation Revealed – Individual operating vehicle was in upgrade status
and not qualified to operate vehicle.
– Instructor failed to take control of the situation and
stop the process. Results – Instructor was decertified and student was removed
from the operators list of trainees. Break Time
15 Minutes Chapter 1
Framework International Civil Aviation
Is a United Nations specialized agency.
Established during the Chicago
conference in December 1944.
Headquartered in Montreal, Canada.
– To achieve “safe, secure, and sustainable
development of civil aviation through
cooperation amongst its member states.” International Civil Aviation
Conventions and regionalism between the World
– 1926, The Madrid Convention (Equality of States)
– 1927, The Hague Convention (First Air Mail Provision)
– 1928, The Havana Convention (Mutual Freedom of
– 1928, The International Civil Aeronautic Conference
( 25th Anniversary of Kitty Hawk)
– 1929, Warsaw Convention (International Stability)
– 1937, Pan Am Conference (Unified Air Legislation
within the North and Southern Hemispheres) International Civil Aviation
– Today ICAO consist of 190 countries on a global
– As of 2010, ICAO has listed the following safety
To proactively improve safety in a complex operating
environment with a wide range of technologies, form older to
latest generation (NextGen) aircraft flying in the same
airspace to the progressive introduction of remote controlled
To focus on these regions of the world with the highest level
of safety risk. International Civil Aviation
ICAO safety strategy will be based on the
following three areas considered by the
– Transparency and sharing of safety
– Greater involvement of regional safety
– Increased cooperation between regulators and
industry stakeholders. The Federal Aviation
Is the U.S. government agency charged with the
responsibility for the safety of civil aviation.
– Has little or no involvement with the military
environment. Was established by the Federal Aviation Act of
– Was originally the Federal Aviation Agency. It underwent a name change in 1967, when it
became part of the Department of Transportation.
– Changed from Agency to Administration. The Federal Aviation
The FAA’s major functions include:
– Regulating civil aviation to promote safety and fulfill the
requirements of national defense.
– Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new
– Developing and operating a common system of air traffic control
and navigation for both civil and military aircraft.
– Performing research and development with respect to the
National Airspace System and civil aeronautics.
– Developing and implementing programs to control aircraft noise
and other environmental effects of civil aviation.
– Regulating U.S. commercial space transportation. The Federal Aviation
The FAA is responsible for performing
several activities that are in support of its
previously mentioned functions. They
– Safety Regulation
Issues and enforces regulations and minimum
standards relating to the manufacturing, operation,
and maintenance of aircraft.
The agency is responsible for the rating and
certification of airmen and for certification of
airports serving carriers. The Federal Aviation Administration
– Airspace and Air Traffic Management
The safe and efficient utilization of the navigable
airspace is a primary objective of the FAA.
It operates a network of airport towers, air route
traffic control centers, and flight service stations.
It develops air traffic rules, allocates the use of
airspace, and provides for the security control of
air traffic to meet national defense requirements. The Federal Aviation Administration
– Air Navigation Facilities
Responsible for the construction or installation of
visual and electronic aids to air navigation, and for
the maintenance, operation, and quality assurance
of these facilities.
Other systems maintained in support of air
navigation and air traffic control include voice/data
communications equipment, radar facilities,
computer systems, and visual display equipment at
flight service stations. The Federal Aviation Administration
– Civil Aviation Abroad
As mandated by legislation, the FAA promotes
aviation safety and encourages civil aviation
– Exchanging aeronautical information with foreign
– Certifying foreign repair shops, airmen, and mechanics.
– Providing technical assistance and training.
– Negotiating bilateral airworthiness agreements.
– Providing technical representation at international
conferences. The Federal Aviation Administration
– Commercial Space Transportation
Regulates and encourages the U.S. commercial
space transportation industry.
It licenses commercial space launch facilities and
private sector launching of space payloads on
expendable launch vehicles. The Federal Aviation Administration
– Research, Engineering, and Development
It engages in research, engineering, and
development aimed at providing the systems and
procedures needed for a safe and efficient of
navigation and air traffic control.
It performs an aero-medical research function and
supports development of improved aircraft,
engines, and equipment.
It conducts tests and evaluations of specified items
such as aviation systems, devices, materials, and
procedures. The Federal Aviation Administration
– Other Programs
The FAA provides a system for registering aircraft
and recording documents affecting title or interest
of aircraft and their components.
Among other activities:
– The agency administers an aviation insurance program.
develops specifications for aeronautical charts.
Publishes information on airways and airport services as
well as on technical subjects relating to aeronautics. A Look At History
and the FAA
Aviation safety programs extend back as far as
the end of World War I.
– Many returning pilots bought surplus aircraft and
went into business (barnstormers and air shows).
– In the mid 1920’s, the aircraft was used for such
Advertising, Aerial Photography, Crop Dusting and
caring illegal shipments of liquor during prohibition.
It catered primarily to the wealthy and was expensive
compared to rail and water travel. Chronology of FAA Regulations
Air Mail Act –
– Created in 1925.
– It was the first recorded requirements for pilots to be
tested and have 500 hours of flying experience.
– It transferred air mail service to private operators.
– Initially, the carriers consisted of 12 companies, some
of which are still in business today, and they were
compensated with a percentage of the postal
– In 1926, it was amended, requiring payment by weight
carried. Chronology of FAA Regulations
Early Safety Regulation
– During the early stages of aviation no federal safety
This caused many problems between the employers and the
During this time the aviation industry experienced a large
amount of accidents and incidents. – This prompted a number of states to pass legislation
requiring aircraft licensing and registration.
– This soon created the Air Commerce Act of 1926. The Air Commerce Act of 1926
Key Issues – Whether to separate military and civilian aviation
– What responsibilities should be left to state and federal
– How to provide federal support for airports. What did the act do for aviation. – Gave the Department of Commerce the authority over
– Allowed it to regulate aircraft and pilots, provide
federal support for charting, lighting airways,
maintaining emergency airfields, weather information,
and research and development in the aviation industry. Chronology of FAA Regulations
Early Economic Legislation
– The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938
This marked the beginning of economic regulation.
It created the Civil Aeronautics Authority. It was
responsible for safety programs and economic
regulations that included route certificates, airline tariffs
and air mail rates. – In 1940, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, the
CAA was transferred back to the Department of
This formed the Civil aeronautics Board which was
responsible for regulatory and investigative matters. Chronology of FAA Regulations
The Federal Aviation Agency – In 1958, congress passed the Federal Aviation Act.
It established a new aviation organization, the Federal
It assumed the functions of the CAA and the CAB.
It was responsible for fostering air commerce, regulating
safety, all future ATC and navigation systems, airspace
allocation and policy. – In 1966, the Federal Aviation Agency became the
Federal Aviation Administration when it was
transferred to the newly formed DOT. The National Transportation Board was established to
determine and report the cause of transportation accidents
and conduct special studies related to safety and accident
prevention. Chronology of FAA Regulations
Commercial Aviation Defined
– An air carrier is a commercial operator or
company that has been certified by the FAA
under Far Part 121 or Part 135 to provide air
transportation of passengers or cargo. Federal Aviation Regulations
– Govern air carriers in multiengine airplanes with more
than 30 seats or 7500 pound payloads.
– It covers domestic air carriers, flag air carriers, or
supplemental air carriers. Part 135
– Govern air carrier operations in airplanes with 30 or
fewer seats and payloads of 7400 pounds or less.
Includes both single and multi engine aircraft and all rotocraft. – It covers commuter air operators, air taxi operators,
and split certificate operators. The Environmental Protection
Established on December 2, 1970.
Was crated to enable coordination and effective
government action on behalf of the environment.
– National Environmental Policy Act
Clean Air Act
Clean Water Act
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments
Toxic Substances Control Act
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
The Oil Pollution Act Occupational Safety and Health
Occupational Safety and Health administration
– Signed into law by President Nixon on January 29,
1970. It was created to ensure the safe and healthful
working conditions for working men and women.
The OSHA Act covers all employers and
employees who do business in the United States
except workplaces already protected by other
federal agencies under other federal statutes. Occupational Safety and Health
Major OSHA Standards Affecting Aviation
– May 29, 1971
First standards were adopted to provide a baseline
for safety and health protection in occupational
– Standards were incorporated from American National
standards Institute (ANSI), National Fire Protection Agency
(NFPA), and the American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH). – November 14, 1978
Lead standards were established to protect workers. Occupational Safety and Health
– May 23, 1980
Medical and exposure records. – September 12, 1980
Fire protection standards. – January 16, 1981
Electrical Standards were updates to meet current
issues. – March 8, 1989
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
Response Standards Occupational Safety and Health
– December 6, 1991
Bloodborne Pathogens Standards – January 14, 1993
Confined Spaces Standards – November 14, 2000
Ergonomics Program Standards QUESTIONS Break Time
15 Minutes Chapter 2
Rulemaking ICAO Organization
Has seven regional offices in:
– Bangkok, Thailand – Asia & Pacific
– Cairo, Egypt – Middle East
– Dakar, Senegal – Western and Central Africa
– Lima, Peru – South America
– Mexico City, Mexico – North and Central
America and Caribbean
– Nairobi, Kenya – Eastern and Southern Africa
– Paris, France – European and North Atlantic ICAO Organization
According to the Chicago Convention,
ICAO is made up of three governing
– The Assembly
– A Council of limited membership with various
– A Secretariat The chief officers are the President and the
Secretary General. ICAO Organization
– Meets every three years.
– Consist of 190 membered states and a large
number of international organizations.
– It reviews the complete work of the
organization in the economic, legal and
– Each state is entitled to one vote.
– Decisions are decided by majority of votes. ICAO Organization
– Is the permanent, second governing body.
– Is elected by the Assembly and composed of
36 Contracting States.
– Gives continuing direction to the work of
– Has the primary focus of adopting and
incorporating ICAO Standards and
Recommended Practices (SARPs). ICAO Organization
– Is the third governing body.
– Is headed by the Secretary General.
– Divided into five main divisions or bureaus.
Air Navigation Bureau (Most Important)
Air Transport Bureau
Technical Cooperation Bureau
Administration and Services Bureau ICAO Rulemaking
Standards and other provisions are
primarily developed in the following
– Standards and Recommended Practices
– Procedures for Air Navigation Services
– Regional Supplementary Procedures
(SUPPS) ICAO Rulemaking
– Standard – is defined as any specification for
physical characteristics, configuration,
material, performance, personnel, or
procedure, the uniform application of which is
recognized for the safety of regularity of
international navigation and to which
Contracting States must conform in
accordance with Convention. ICAO Rulemaking
– Recommended Practice – is any specification
for physical characteristics, configuration,
material, performance, personnel, or
procedure, the uniform application of which is
recognized as desirable in the interest of
safety, regularity, or efficiency of international
air navigation, and to which Contracting
States will endeavor to conform in accordance
with the Convention. ICAO Rulemaking
The rulemaking process of ICAO can be
located on page 37, figure 2.2.
– Please turn to it in the book for a
comprehensive review. FAA Organization and Rulemaking
The FAA is organized into six functional offices
spread over nine regions and three centers
across the United States.
– Airports (APR)
Air Traffic Services (ACS)
Civil Aviation Security (AST)
Commercial Space Transportation (AST)
Regulation and Certification (AVR)
Research and Acquisitions (ARA) FAA Organization and Rulemaking
FAA Headquarters Staff Offices
FAA Regional Offices and Centers
– Alaskan Region (AK)
Central Region (KS, MO, IA, and NE)
Eastern Region (NY,PA,NJ, MD, DE, VA, and WV)
Great Lakes Region (IL, IN, MI, MN, ND, SD, OH, and
– New England Region (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, and VT)
– Northwest Mountain Region (CO, MT, OR, and WA) FAA Organization and Rulemaking
– Southern Region (GA, FL, AL, NC, SC, MS,
KY, and TN)
– Southwest Region (NM, TX, OK, LA, and AR)
– Western Pacific Region (CA, AZ, HI, and NV)
– Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (OK)
– William J. Hughes Technical Center (NJ)
– Center for Management Development (FL) Aviation Flight Standards
In 1958, the Bureau of Flight Standards was
established as one of the five bureaus that
operate in the FAA.
In 1967, the name was changed to Flight
It’s mission is to ensure continued enhancement
of flight safety.
They do this through aggressive aviation
education programs and seminars for the
industry and the flying public. Aviation Flight Standards
Functional organization of the Flight
– The programs are carried out by nationwide
by a workforce of approximately 4500 aviation
inspectors and support personnel.
– There are nine regional divisions with 85 flight
standards district offices (FSDOs) and
satellite offices located throughout the U.S.
and it’s territories. Air Carrier Responsibility for Safety
Section 601(b) of the FA Act specifies, in part, that when
prescribing standards and regulations and when issuing
certificates, the FAA shall give full consideration “to the
duty resting upon air carriers to perform their services
with highest possible degree of safety in the public
Prior to certification the FAA’s objective is to make
factual and legal determination that the potential
certificate holder is willing to comply with the minimum
If the certificate holder fails to comply with the minimum
standards, the certificate may be amended, modified,
suspended or revoked, in whole or in part. FAA Safety Inspection Program
It depends in part on the quality and
thoroughness of the airlines’ maintenance
programs and on oversight and surveillance by
the safety inspectors of the FAA.
Since airline deregulation, there has been an
increase in concern that maintenance standards
has been lowered at some carriers because of
the increased pressures in the marketplace.
The local FSDOs conduct several types of
inspections on each airline’s operations and
– Inspectors periodically conduct maintenance-based
inspections, which focus on the records kept by an
airline. Workload, Reexamination and
– The certification process take a lot of attention. It will usually
take a considerable time away from the safety side of the house. Reexamination of Air Carriers
– When one carrier merges with another, the local aviation Flight
Standards office acquires responsibility for this issue. Public Complaint
– When the public has a complaint, the FAA is obligated to
investigate. In many cases, the complaints are small items that
take an considerable amount of the inspectors time and pose no
safety hazard. This will ultimately rob time from the inspectors
conducting other important duties. FAA Rule Making
General rule making procedures are
contained in Part 11 of the FARs.
1. The aviation Flight Standards decides which
projects to address.
– Three kinds of projects – P projects – instigated by public petition
I projects – allows 80 hours of study to determine a
need to pursue rulemaking
R projects – are approved for work as time permits. FAA Rule Making
2. The individual offices select the highest priorities
and submit them to the Aviation Flight Standards
3. The board meets (4 time per year) and then selects
from the project to form their top 26 list.
4. It then goes through many different procedures and
processes that determine if the rule has validly.
5. After the rule is cleared to proceed, the appropriate
organizes a team to manage the rule.
6. The team agrees on a good draft of the Notice of
Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM). FAA Rule Making
7. It is then submitted to the Office of Aviation Policy and
Plans for regulatory impact analysis when appropriate.
8. This will develop a new draft and then the principles of
interest are then briefed.
9. After the principles are briefed, the team coordinates a
package with the principles.
10. The Associate of Administration for Aviation Standards
reviews the package and forwards it to the c...
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