Session 1 Slides EVH.ppt - SFTY 409 Aviation Safety EagleVision Home EagleVision Home Accessing the Course Using the Course Tools Experiencing

Session 1 Slides EVH.ppt - SFTY 409 Aviation Safety...

This preview shows page 1 out of 65 pages.

Unformatted text preview: SFTY 409 Aviation Safety EagleVision Home EagleVision Home Accessing the Course Using the Course Tools Experiencing Difficulties Contact Information for System Problems – EagleVision Techicians Instructor Contact Information – Home Phone – (901) 834 – 1705 – Cell Phone – (901) 834 - 4076 Class Information Instructor Syllabus Review – – App Share Book Requirements ERAU Blackboard Requirements Emails – Please used the ERAU email system only. Exams – Emailed to Students Classmate Introductions Overturned Apparatus What Happened – Individuals were going to fast around a corner on the airport property. – Lost control of vehicle in the process. Investigation Revealed – Individual operating vehicle was in upgrade status and not qualified to operate vehicle. – Instructor failed to take control of the situation and stop the process. Results – Instructor was decertified and student was removed from the operators list of trainees. Break Time 15 Minutes Chapter 1 The Regulatory Framework International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Is a United Nations specialized agency. Established during the Chicago conference in December 1944. Headquartered in Montreal, Canada. It’s vision: – To achieve “safe, secure, and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member states.” International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Conventions and regionalism between the World Wars: – 1926, The Madrid Convention (Equality of States) – 1927, The Hague Convention (First Air Mail Provision) – 1928, The Havana Convention (Mutual Freedom of Air Passage) – 1928, The International Civil Aeronautic Conference ( 25th Anniversary of Kitty Hawk) – 1929, Warsaw Convention (International Stability) – 1937, Pan Am Conference (Unified Air Legislation within the North and Southern Hemispheres) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Future Challenges: – Today ICAO consist of 190 countries on a global basis. – As of 2010, ICAO has listed the following safety challenges: To proactively improve safety in a complex operating environment with a wide range of technologies, form older to latest generation (NextGen) aircraft flying in the same airspace to the progressive introduction of remote controlled airborne vehicles. To focus on these regions of the world with the highest level of safety risk. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ICAO safety strategy will be based on the following three areas considered by the assembly: – Transparency and sharing of safety information. – Greater involvement of regional safety organization. – Increased cooperation between regulators and industry stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration Is the U.S. government agency charged with the responsibility for the safety of civil aviation. – Has little or no involvement with the military environment. Was established by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. – Was originally the Federal Aviation Agency. It underwent a name change in 1967, when it became part of the Department of Transportation. – Changed from Agency to Administration. The Federal Aviation Administration The FAA’s major functions include: – Regulating civil aviation to promote safety and fulfill the requirements of national defense. – Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology. – Developing and operating a common system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft. – Performing research and development with respect to the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics. – Developing and implementing programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation. – Regulating U.S. commercial space transportation. The Federal Aviation Administration The FAA is responsible for performing several activities that are in support of its previously mentioned functions. They include: – Safety Regulation Issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards relating to the manufacturing, operation, and maintenance of aircraft. The agency is responsible for the rating and certification of airmen and for certification of airports serving carriers. The Federal Aviation Administration – Airspace and Air Traffic Management The safe and efficient utilization of the navigable airspace is a primary objective of the FAA. It operates a network of airport towers, air route traffic control centers, and flight service stations. It develops air traffic rules, allocates the use of airspace, and provides for the security control of air traffic to meet national defense requirements. The Federal Aviation Administration – Air Navigation Facilities Responsible for the construction or installation of visual and electronic aids to air navigation, and for the maintenance, operation, and quality assurance of these facilities. Other systems maintained in support of air navigation and air traffic control include voice/data communications equipment, radar facilities, computer systems, and visual display equipment at flight service stations. The Federal Aviation Administration – Civil Aviation Abroad As mandated by legislation, the FAA promotes aviation safety and encourages civil aviation abroad. Activities include: – Exchanging aeronautical information with foreign authorities. – Certifying foreign repair shops, airmen, and mechanics. – Providing technical assistance and training. – Negotiating bilateral airworthiness agreements. – Providing technical representation at international conferences. The Federal Aviation Administration – Commercial Space Transportation Regulates and encourages the U.S. commercial space transportation industry. It licenses commercial space launch facilities and private sector launching of space payloads on expendable launch vehicles. The Federal Aviation Administration – Research, Engineering, and Development It engages in research, engineering, and development aimed at providing the systems and procedures needed for a safe and efficient of navigation and air traffic control. It performs an aero-medical research function and supports development of improved aircraft, engines, and equipment. It conducts tests and evaluations of specified items such as aviation systems, devices, materials, and procedures. The Federal Aviation Administration – Other Programs The FAA provides a system for registering aircraft and recording documents affecting title or interest of aircraft and their components. Among other activities: – – – The agency administers an aviation insurance program. develops specifications for aeronautical charts. Publishes information on airways and airport services as well as on technical subjects relating to aeronautics. A Look At History and the FAA Aviation safety programs extend back as far as the end of World War I. – Many returning pilots bought surplus aircraft and went into business (barnstormers and air shows). – In the mid 1920’s, the aircraft was used for such things as; Advertising, Aerial Photography, Crop Dusting and caring illegal shipments of liquor during prohibition. It catered primarily to the wealthy and was expensive compared to rail and water travel. Chronology of FAA Regulations Air Mail Act – – Created in 1925. – It was the first recorded requirements for pilots to be tested and have 500 hours of flying experience. – It transferred air mail service to private operators. – Initially, the carriers consisted of 12 companies, some of which are still in business today, and they were compensated with a percentage of the postal revenues. – In 1926, it was amended, requiring payment by weight carried. Chronology of FAA Regulations Early Safety Regulation – During the early stages of aviation no federal safety programs existed. This caused many problems between the employers and the employees. During this time the aviation industry experienced a large amount of accidents and incidents. – This prompted a number of states to pass legislation requiring aircraft licensing and registration. – This soon created the Air Commerce Act of 1926. The Air Commerce Act of 1926 Key Issues – Whether to separate military and civilian aviation activities. – What responsibilities should be left to state and federal agencies. – How to provide federal support for airports. What did the act do for aviation. – Gave the Department of Commerce the authority over commercial aviation. – Allowed it to regulate aircraft and pilots, provide federal support for charting, lighting airways, maintaining emergency airfields, weather information, and research and development in the aviation industry. Chronology of FAA Regulations Early Economic Legislation – The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938 This marked the beginning of economic regulation. It created the Civil Aeronautics Authority. It was responsible for safety programs and economic regulations that included route certificates, airline tariffs and air mail rates. – In 1940, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, the CAA was transferred back to the Department of Commerce. This formed the Civil aeronautics Board which was responsible for regulatory and investigative matters. Chronology of FAA Regulations The Federal Aviation Agency – In 1958, congress passed the Federal Aviation Act. It established a new aviation organization, the Federal Aviation Agency. It assumed the functions of the CAA and the CAB. It was responsible for fostering air commerce, regulating safety, all future ATC and navigation systems, airspace allocation and policy. – In 1966, the Federal Aviation Agency became the Federal Aviation Administration when it was transferred to the newly formed DOT. The National Transportation Board was established to determine and report the cause of transportation accidents and conduct special studies related to safety and accident prevention. Chronology of FAA Regulations Commercial Aviation Defined – An air carrier is a commercial operator or company that has been certified by the FAA under Far Part 121 or Part 135 to provide air transportation of passengers or cargo. Federal Aviation Regulations Part 121 – Govern air carriers in multiengine airplanes with more than 30 seats or 7500 pound payloads. – It covers domestic air carriers, flag air carriers, or supplemental air carriers. Part 135 – Govern air carrier operations in airplanes with 30 or fewer seats and payloads of 7400 pounds or less. Includes both single and multi engine aircraft and all rotocraft. – It covers commuter air operators, air taxi operators, and split certificate operators. The Environmental Protection Agency Established on December 2, 1970. Was crated to enable coordination and effective government action on behalf of the environment. – – – – – – – – National Environmental Policy Act Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Toxic Substances Control Act Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act The Oil Pollution Act Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational Safety and Health administration Act – Signed into law by President Nixon on January 29, 1970. It was created to ensure the safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women. The OSHA Act covers all employers and employees who do business in the United States except workplaces already protected by other federal agencies under other federal statutes. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Major OSHA Standards Affecting Aviation – May 29, 1971 First standards were adopted to provide a baseline for safety and health protection in occupational environments. – Standards were incorporated from American National standards Institute (ANSI), National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA), and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH). – November 14, 1978 Lead standards were established to protect workers. Occupational Safety and Health Administration – May 23, 1980 Medical and exposure records. – September 12, 1980 Fire protection standards. – January 16, 1981 Electrical Standards were updates to meet current issues. – March 8, 1989 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standards Occupational Safety and Health Administration – December 6, 1991 Bloodborne Pathogens Standards – January 14, 1993 Confined Spaces Standards – November 14, 2000 Ergonomics Program Standards QUESTIONS Break Time 15 Minutes Chapter 2 Regulatory Organization and Rulemaking ICAO Organization Has seven regional offices in: – Bangkok, Thailand – Asia & Pacific – Cairo, Egypt – Middle East – Dakar, Senegal – Western and Central Africa – Lima, Peru – South America – Mexico City, Mexico – North and Central America and Caribbean – Nairobi, Kenya – Eastern and Southern Africa – Paris, France – European and North Atlantic ICAO Organization According to the Chicago Convention, ICAO is made up of three governing bodies: – The Assembly – A Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies. – A Secretariat The chief officers are the President and the Secretary General. ICAO Organization The Assembly – Meets every three years. – Consist of 190 membered states and a large number of international organizations. – It reviews the complete work of the organization in the economic, legal and technical fields. – Each state is entitled to one vote. – Decisions are decided by majority of votes. ICAO Organization The Council – Is the permanent, second governing body. – Is elected by the Assembly and composed of 36 Contracting States. – Gives continuing direction to the work of ICAO. – Has the primary focus of adopting and incorporating ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs). ICAO Organization The Secretariat – Is the third governing body. – Is headed by the Secretary General. – Divided into five main divisions or bureaus. Air Navigation Bureau (Most Important) Air Transport Bureau Technical Cooperation Bureau Legal Bureau Administration and Services Bureau ICAO Rulemaking Standards and other provisions are primarily developed in the following categories: – Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) – Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) – Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS) ICAO Rulemaking Key Definitions: – Standard – is defined as any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel, or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized for the safety of regularity of international navigation and to which Contracting States must conform in accordance with Convention. ICAO Rulemaking – Recommended Practice – is any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material, performance, personnel, or procedure, the uniform application of which is recognized as desirable in the interest of safety, regularity, or efficiency of international air navigation, and to which Contracting States will endeavor to conform in accordance with the Convention. ICAO Rulemaking The rulemaking process of ICAO can be located on page 37, figure 2.2. – Please turn to it in the book for a comprehensive review. FAA Organization and Rulemaking The FAA is organized into six functional offices spread over nine regions and three centers across the United States. FAA Organization – – – – – – Airports (APR) Air Traffic Services (ACS) Civil Aviation Security (AST) Commercial Space Transportation (AST) Regulation and Certification (AVR) Research and Acquisitions (ARA) FAA Organization and Rulemaking FAA Headquarters Staff Offices FAA Regional Offices and Centers – – – – Alaskan Region (AK) Central Region (KS, MO, IA, and NE) Eastern Region (NY,PA,NJ, MD, DE, VA, and WV) Great Lakes Region (IL, IN, MI, MN, ND, SD, OH, and WI) – New England Region (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, and VT) – Northwest Mountain Region (CO, MT, OR, and WA) FAA Organization and Rulemaking – Southern Region (GA, FL, AL, NC, SC, MS, KY, and TN) – Southwest Region (NM, TX, OK, LA, and AR) – Western Pacific Region (CA, AZ, HI, and NV) – Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (OK) – William J. Hughes Technical Center (NJ) – Center for Management Development (FL) Aviation Flight Standards In 1958, the Bureau of Flight Standards was established as one of the five bureaus that operate in the FAA. In 1967, the name was changed to Flight Standards Service. It’s mission is to ensure continued enhancement of flight safety. They do this through aggressive aviation education programs and seminars for the industry and the flying public. Aviation Flight Standards Functional organization of the Flight Standards Service – The programs are carried out by nationwide by a workforce of approximately 4500 aviation inspectors and support personnel. – There are nine regional divisions with 85 flight standards district offices (FSDOs) and satellite offices located throughout the U.S. and it’s territories. Air Carrier Responsibility for Safety Section 601(b) of the FA Act specifies, in part, that when prescribing standards and regulations and when issuing certificates, the FAA shall give full consideration “to the duty resting upon air carriers to perform their services with highest possible degree of safety in the public interest.” Prior to certification the FAA’s objective is to make factual and legal determination that the potential certificate holder is willing to comply with the minimum standards. If the certificate holder fails to comply with the minimum standards, the certificate may be amended, modified, suspended or revoked, in whole or in part. FAA Safety Inspection Program It depends in part on the quality and thoroughness of the airlines’ maintenance programs and on oversight and surveillance by the safety inspectors of the FAA. Since airline deregulation, there has been an increase in concern that maintenance standards has been lowered at some carriers because of the increased pressures in the marketplace. The local FSDOs conduct several types of inspections on each airline’s operations and maintenance functions. – Inspectors periodically conduct maintenance-based inspections, which focus on the records kept by an airline. Workload, Reexamination and Public Complaints Inspector Workload – The certification process take a lot of attention. It will usually take a considerable time away from the safety side of the house. Reexamination of Air Carriers – When one carrier merges with another, the local aviation Flight Standards office acquires responsibility for this issue. Public Complaint – When the public has a complaint, the FAA is obligated to investigate. In many cases, the complaints are small items that take an considerable amount of the inspectors time and pose no safety hazard. This will ultimately rob time from the inspectors conducting other important duties. FAA Rule Making General rule making procedures are contained in Part 11 of the FARs. Rule Process 1. The aviation Flight Standards decides which projects to address. – Three kinds of projects – P projects – instigated by public petition I projects – allows 80 hours of study to determine a need to pursue rulemaking R projects – are approved for work as time permits. FAA Rule Making 2. The individual offices select the highest priorities and submit them to the Aviation Flight Standards review board. 3. The board meets (4 time per year) and then selects from the project to form their top 26 list. 4. It then goes through many different procedures and processes that determine if the rule has validly. 5. After the rule is cleared to proceed, the appropriate organizes a team to manage the rule. 6. The team agrees on a good draft of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM). FAA Rule Making 7. It is then submitted to the Office of Aviation Policy and Plans for regulatory impact analysis when appropriate. 8. This will develop a new draft and then the principles of interest are then briefed. 9. After the principles are briefed, the team coordinates a package with the principles. 10. The Associate of Administration for Aviation Standards reviews the package and forwards it to the c...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture