A&P Chapter 12 Study Guide.doc - Nervous tissue Functions of the nervous system sensory response integration CNS and PNS Brain spinal cord nerves

A&P Chapter 12 Study Guide.doc - Nervous tissue...

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Nervous tissue Functions of the nervous system: sensory, response, integration. CNS and PNS. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia. Autonomic and somatic NS: what they innervate and their functions. Cells of the nervous system: neurons and neuroglia. Types of neuroglia cells, their location and functions: microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, ependymal cells. Structure of a typical neuron: cell body, axon, dendrites etc. Types of neurons: multipolar, bipolar, pseudounipolar, unipolar. Their typical locations and functions. Membrane potentials: how they are established and used by neurons. Membrane potentials: Resting potential, action potential. How they are formed and used in muscle cells. Role of Na and K ions. Na/K-pump. Voltage gated channels. Polarized membrane. Depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, refractory period. Structure of myelin and its role. Continuous and saltatory conduction of nervous impulse. Different types of nerves in terms of myelination. Synaptic transmission (see also neuromuscular junction above). Mechanism of synaptic vesicle release from presynaptic terminal. Mechanism of neurotransmitter effect on postsynaptic cell. Types of receptors: ion channels, metabolic receptors (G-protein etc). One-way nature of synaptic conduction. Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters - depolarization and hyperpolarization of membrane. Know main types of neurotransmitters: Ach, glutamate, GABA, NE, dopamine, serotonin, peptides. EPSP, IPSP and summation. Spatial summation and temporal summation. Removal of neurotransmitters: enzymatic degradation, diffusion and reuptake. Effects of biologically active compounds on synaptic transmission (poisons, medicines, drugs etc). Neural circuits: integration and information processing. Know main types of circuits and what they achieve. Nervous tissue practice questions: 1. List the parts of CNS and PNS. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia 2. What are 3 “big” functions of the nervous system?
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  • Fall '16
  • Lambrini Nicopoulos

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