Prashasan109 (2)..rhs.doc - k|zf;g;fj{hlgs k|zf;g;DaGwL klqsf jif c s k\"0ff{\u00cd c;f)^ Gf]kfn\/sf\/sf sfo;~rfng k| 0ffnLdf'zf;g \u00e5fl\/sfgfy 9'\u00cb]n

Prashasan109 (2)..rhs.doc - k|zf;g;fj{hlgs k|zf;g;DaGwL...

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Unformatted text preview: k|zf;g, ;fj{hlgs k|zf;g ;DaGwL klqsf jif{ #(, c+s , k"0ff{Í !)(, c;f/ @)^% Gf]kfn ;/sf/sf] sfo{ ;~rfng k| 0ffnLdf ;'zf;g åfl/sfgfy 9'Ë]n* k|hf;'v] ;'v+ /f1M k|hfgd\ r lxt] lxtd\ . gfTdlk|o+ lxt+ /f1 k|hfg+f t' lk|o+ lxtd\ .. sf}]l6No cy{ zf:q -efu ! kl/R5]b\ !(, Zn]fs #$ ljifo k|j]z cfhsn ;aeGbf a9L k|rng jf rrf{df /x]sf] zAb xf], zf;g -Governance_ ;'zf;g jf c;n o; n]v n]vfO{sf] s|ddf k|fKt ;xof]usf nflu cfO{= cfO={ 8L= P;=sf uf]ljGb l3ld/] / l;nd >]i7 tyf sdf{rfo{ k|];sf k|f]k|fO{6/ pd]z sdf{rfo{nfO{ wGojfb lbg rfxG5' . ;fy}, cfkm\gf] Jo:t ;dosf] jfjh'b klg ljifoj:t'sf] k|:t'lts/0fnfO{ ulx/f] ceL?rL ;fy kl9 /fo ;'emfjx? lbg] ldqx? >L o'j/fh kf08],;lrj ;"rgf tyf ;~rf/ dGqfno / k|zf;g ljb ch'{gd0fL cfrfo{ bLlIft tyf k|B'Dg /]UdLnfO{ xflb{s wGojfb lbg rfxG5' . ljZn]if0f tyf JofVofsf] s|ddf cg]s 7fp+df o; k+lQmsf/ tyf cRo't jxfb'/ /fhe08f/Låf/f lnlvt >L % sf] ;/sf/df ;'zf;gsf cfofdx? [email protected])%(_gfds u|Gydf ;dj]; ePsf s'/fx? ;d]t k|of]u ul/Psf] s'/f klg pNn]v ul/G5 . * 1 zf;g (Good Governance ) . oL zJbx?sf] k| of]u /fHo ;~rfngsf s'/f jf k|zf;gsf af/]df rrf{ jf cfly{s ;xof]u -låkIfLo / ax'kIfLo_ sf ljifodf jf gful/s ;dfh jf lghL If]qsf lqmofsnfksf af/]df ljZn]if0fsf] s|ddf xf];, u/Lg] u/LG5 . o:t} u/L e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf s'/f ul/+bf klg, oL zAbx? cfhsn v'a k|of]udf cfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . ; +o'Qm /fi6« ljsf; sfo{s|d -United Nations Development Programme) n] o;nfO{ lbuf] dfgj ljsf; -Sustainable Human Development) ;+u hf]8]/ k|of]u ug{] ub{5 . -;+o'Qm /fi6« ljsf; sfo{sd, ! ((&_ zf;g zJbnfO{ cS;kmf]8{ c+u|]hL zAbsf]ifn] zf;g ug]{ tl/sf eg]/ ( The action or manner of Governing ) kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 . x'gtM o;n] ;/sf/sf] zf;g ug] { s'/fnfO{ hgfpg vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 . tyflk, o; zJbnfO{ s'g} klg ;+:yfsf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ tl/sfsf] laZn]if0f ubf{ k| 2 of]u ug{ ;lsG5, rfx] o;sf] kl/efiff leGg lgsfox?n] cf–cfkm\g} tl/sfn] u/]sf x'g\ . pbfx/0fsf nflu ;+o'Qm /fi6\;+3 ljsf; sfo{s|dsf cg';f/M zf;g zAbn] /fHo ;~rfngsf] k|To]s txdf cfly{s, /fhgLlts / k|zf;sLo clwsf/sf] k| of]u ul/g] s'/fnfO{ hgfp+b5 . o;n] tL ;a} dfWodx? (Mechanisms) k|lqmof / ; +:yfx?nfO{ ;d]6\b5, h;åf/f gfu/Ls jf ;d"xx?n] cfkm\gf cle?rL÷rfxgf (Interests) /fHo ;dIf k|:t't ub{5g\ . cfkm\gf sfg'gL clwsf/ k|of]u ub{5g\, bfloTj lgefp+b5g\ / leGgtfx?sf] dWo:ytf ub{5g\ . o;sf ljleGg tTjx? 5g\ . o;n] ;xeflutfd"ns, kf/blz{tfk"0f{ / pQ/bfloTjk"0f{ k|yfnfO{ c+ufNb5 . ;fy} ;fwgx?sf] k|of]u Hofb} pko'Qm ? kdf (Best use) x'g' kg]{ s'/f / ;dfg'kfltstfdf ljZjf; /fVb5 / sfg'gL /fhsf] l;4fGtnfO{ a9fjf lbG5 .1 1 . Governance can be seen 'as the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country's affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes, institutions through which citizens and 3 log} s'/fx?nfO{ cufl8 a9fpb} ; +o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf k"j{ dxf;lrj sf]kmL cGgfg\ eGg' x'G5M zf;g zAbn] sfg'gsf] /fh, /fHosf k| efjsf/L ;+:yfx?, ;fj{hlgs ljifox?sf] Joj:yfkgdf kf/blz{tf, pQ/bfloTj, dfgj clwsf/sf] OHht / cfˆgf hLjgnfO{ c;/ ug] { ljifosf] lg0f{odf ;j} gful/sx?sf] ;xefluTffsf] clwsf/ hgfpFb5 . logsf 9fFrfdf ljjfb x'g ;Snf, t/ logsf dxTjsf jf/]df eg] ljjfb x'g ;Sb}g .2 ljZj j}+s / PlzofnL ljsf; j}+ssfcg';f/ zf;g eGGffn] /fHosf] cfly{s / ;fdflhs ;| f]tx? ljsf;sf] nflu s;/L k|of]u ul/G5 eGg] j'em'\g' kb{5 . ;'zf;gnfO{ /fd|f] jf 2 groups articulate their interests, and exercise their legal rights, and meet their obligations and mediate their differences. Good governance has many attributes. It is participatory, transparent and accountable. It is effective in making the best use of resorucess and is equitable. And it promotes the rule of law (UNDP 1997). Good Governance comprises the rule of law, effective state institutions, transparency and accountability in the management of public affairs, respect for human rights, and the participation of all citizens in the decisions that effect their lives. While there may be debates about the most appropriate forms they should take, there can be no disputing the importance of these principles (Quoted in Dams and Development 2000). 4 Jojl:yt ljsf;sf] Joj:yfkgsf] kof{ojfrL eg]/ j'em\g'kb{5 .3 cGt/fli{6«o d'b|f sf]ifsfcg';f/ zf;g zJbn] /fHo s;/L ;~rfng ePsf] 5, To;sf ;a} kIfnfO{, cyf{t cfly{s gLlt / lgodgsf] ;+oGqnfO{ ;d]6b5 . e|i6«frf/ h;nfO{ zf;gsf] ;Lldt ?kdf lnOG5, d"ntM ;fj{hlgs clwsf/ / ljZjf;nfO{ JolQmut lxt / kmfObfsf]nflu k|of]u u/LPsf] eg/] a'e\mg'kb{5 . oL b'O{ zAbx? Ps csf{;Fu hf]l8Psf 5g=\ . oL s'/fx? o:tf jftfj/0fx? x'g, h;dWo] v/fa zf;gdf a9L e| i6«frf/ x'g] ub{5 / o;nfO{ k|f]T;flxt ul/G5 . e|i6«frf/sf w]/} sf/0fx? cfly{s k|s[ltsf x'G5g\ / o;sf] k|ltkmn klg cfly{s g} /xG5 . v/fj zf;g cfly{s ls| 3 Governance is the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development ( World Bank 1992). The use of political authority and exercise of control in a society in relation to the manangement of its resources for social and economic development Good governance … is synonymous with sound development management (Asian Development Bank). 5 ofsnfk / ;fdflhs lxtsf] nflu xflgsf/s x'G5 .4 ljZjJofkL zf;g k|0ffnL ;DaGwL cfof]usfcg';f/ zf;gn] To:tf ;j} sfo{ k4ltsf] ;di6LnfO{ hgfp+b5, h;sf] k|of]u JolQm / ;+:yfn] gLlt jf ;fj{hlgs ?kn] cfˆgf ;dfg ;/f]sf/sf ljifosf] Joj:yfkgsf nflu ub{5g\ . of] lg/Gt/ rln/xg] k|ls|of xf], h;sf] dfWodåf/f leGg / k|lt:kwL{ cfsf+Iffx? nfO{ ldnfpg ;xof]uL sfo{ ul/G5 . o; cGtu{t To:tf cf}krfl/s ;+:yf / Joj:yf kb{5g, hf];‘u lg0f{o dfGg jfWo u/fpg] zlQm /xG5g\ . tyf To:tf cgf}krfl/s ; +:yfx? x'g h; dfkm{t ;DjlGwtn] cfˆgf] cfsf+Iff / clenfiff k"/f x'g] 7fGb5g\5 . 4 5 The term governance, as generally used, encompasses all aspects of the way a country is governed, including its economic policies and regulatory framework. Corruption is a narrower concept, which is often defined as the abuse of public authority or trust for private benefit. The two concepts are closely linked: an environment characterized by poor governance offers greater incentives and more scope for corruption. Many of the causes of corruption are economic in nature, and so are its consequences – poor governance clearly is detrimental to economic activity and welfare (IMF). Governance is the sum of many ways individuals and institutions, public and private, manage their common affairs. It is a continuing process through which conflicting or diverse interests may be accomodated and cooperative action may be taken. It includes formal institutions and regimes empowered to enforce compliance, as well as informal arrangments that people and institutions either have agreed to or perceive to be in their interest (South Asia Human Deveopment Report, 1999). 6 @))! df ePsf] hL cf7sf] j}7s cg';f/ Zff;gM dfgj clwsf/sf] OHht / sfg'gsf] /fhdf cfwfl/t v'Nnf, k|hftflGqs / pQ/bfoL zf;g Joj:yf xf] . ;fy} of] lbuf] ljsf; / alnof] ljsf; / pGgltsf] k"jf{wf/ xf] .6 dfly pNn]v ul/Psf kl/efiffx?n] zf;g zAbsf] JofVof leGg ?kdf ul/Psf]] :ki6 b]lvG5 . tyflk ;a}n] o;nfO{ sfo{k| 0ffnL;Fu hf]8]/ AofVof u/]sf b]lvG5 . cyf{t o;n] To:tf] sfo{k|0ffnL hf] ;xeflutfd"ns, kf/bzL{ / pQ/bfloTjk"0f{ x'G5, nfO{ hgfpFb5 . ; +o'Qm /fi6« ljsf; sfo{s|d -!((&_ sf cg';f/ oLgsf cltl/Qm cGo s'/fx? 7 6 Governance means: Open, democratic and accountable systems of governance, based on respect for human rights and the rule of law, are preconditions for sustainable development and robust growth. (G8 Genoa Summit, Final Communiqué, 2001) 7 sfg"gsf] /fh -dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f ;d]t_ (Rule of law including protection of Human Right), lhDd]jf/Lkgf_ -Responsiveness_, ;xdtL -Jofks_ (Consensus) -$_ ;dfgtf (Equity), -%_ k|efjsfl/tf / ldtJolotf -Effectiveness and cost effective_, -^_ bL3{sflng ;f]rfO{ -wf/0ff_ -Long term perspeceive). 7 nfO{ klg ;'zf;gsf tTjx?sf ?kdf lng'kb{5 . csf]{ s'/f e|i6frf/ lgjf/0fnfO{ klg o;sf] dxTj\k"0f{ tTjsf ?kdf lnOG5 . ;fy} cfhsn zf;g zJbnfO{ …;Ú' jf …cÚ ljZn]if0f ;lxt, cyf{t ;'zf;g jf c;n zf;g sf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/G5 . P]ltxfl;s kIf -;+lIfKt_ o;sf] P]ltxfl;s kIfsf] ljj]rgf ug{]x¿sf egfO{df ;'zf;g zAbsf] k|of]u k"jL{ Pj+ klZrd bz{gx¿ b'j}df kfO{G5 . k"jL{o bz{gsf ljZn]ifsx¿sf] egfO{df, o;sf] pNn]v jflNdls /fdfo0f, dxfef/tsf] zflGtkj{, z's| gLlt nufot cg]s bz{gx¿df kfOG5 -dx]Zj/L @))@_ . dxfef/t zflGt kj{cg';f/ ;'zf;gsf] cfwf/l;nf wd{ xf] . /fhf, dGqL tyf /fi6«;]jsx?n] wd{ ;+:yfkgsf] g}lts bfloTj lng' kg]{ x'bf+ olb logLx?n] 8 wd{ 5f8L cfkm\gf] lghLlxtsf] j;df ;j{ hglxtsf] ljrf/ u/LlbPgg\ eg] g/ssf] jf; ug'{kg]{ t 5b}5, ;'zf;gsf g}lts cfwf/x? ;d]t lj:yflkt u/LlbG5g - kl/R5]b *% Znf]s !^–!& _ k|l;4 bfz{lgs sf}l6Nosf pWb[t ul/Psf] Znf]s cg';f/ dflYf /fhfsf] ;'v k|hfsf] ;'vdf / /fhfsf] lxt klg k|hfsf] lxt g} /xG5, o;}n] -/fHo zf;g_ /fhfnfO{ lk|o x'g] s'/f dfGg] xf]Og k| hfnfO{ lk|o x'g] s'/fnfO{ g} lxt dfGg' kb{5 . klZrdL bz{gdf o; zAbsf] k|of]u u|Ls bfz{lgsx¿ Nk]6f], c/:t' / jt{dfgdf j]j/ / ;'dlk6/n] u/]sf 5g\ . d]/f] hfgsf/Ldf cfP cg';f/ ljZj a} +sn] ;g\ !(*) sf] bzssf] pQ/fw{df cfkm"n] pknAw u/fPsf] ;xof]usf] c;/÷k| ltkmn s] s:tf] ePsf] /x]5 egL clk|msf 9 dxfb]zsf] ;j–;fx/f If]qsf /fi6«x?sf] cWoog u/fp+bf kQf nufof] ls ;DjlGwt /fi6«sf] zf;g ;~rfng k|ls|of v/fj -Poor governance_ ePsf]n] pknAw u/fOPsf] ;xof]u ;b'kof]u x'g ;s]sf] /x]g5 -xfO8]g / sf]6{ @)))_ . o:t} u/L zf;g ;~rfng k|ls|ofdf b]lvPsf sdhf]/L -Poor governance_ g} blIf0f Pl;ofsf b]zx?df b]vf k/]sf Jofks dfgj ;d:ofx? -Colossal human deprivation) sf k|d'v sf/s tTj xf] eg]/ blIf0f Plzofsf] dfgj ljsf; k|ltj]bg, ! ((( n] ls6fg u/]sf] 5 . o;eGbf cufl8 ljZj j}+sn] cfkm\gf] jflif{s k|ltj]bg jblnbf] + ljZjdf /fHosf] e"ldsf -!((&_ df ;/sf/sf ls||ofsnfk j9L pQ/bfoL, lhDd]jf/Lk"0f{, ;xeflutfd"ns x'g'kg]{ / e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fdf hf]8 lbPsf] lyof] . d'n'ssf] kl/j];, ljZn]if0fsf] ;Ldf / kf/blz{tf, ;xeflutfTds k|0ffnL, / pTj/bfloTjk'0f{ Jojxf/sf] kl/efiff 10 clxn] d'n's [email protected])^% ;fn, O=;[email protected]))* df_ /fhgLlts ?k jf Joj:yfkgsf] b[li6sf]0faf6 ;+s|d0fsfndf 5 . g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg, @)$& sf] ;6\6f gofF ;+ljwfg, g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# sf] cfwf/df ;~rflnt 5 . o; ; +ljwfgsf] k|:tfjgfdf pNn]v ePsf] 5 k|lt:kwf{Tds jx'bnLo nf]stflGqs zf;g Joj:yf, gful/s :jtGqtf, df}lns clwsf/, dfgj clwsf/,cfjlws lgjf{rg, k"0f{ k|]; :jtGqtf, Gofokflnsf tyf sfg'gL /fHosf] cjwf/0ff nufot nf]stflGqs d"No / dfGotfk|ltsf] k"0f{ k|ltj¢tf JoQm ub}{===. ;fy} g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -dfcf]jfbL_ sf aLr lzif{:y txdf ;DkGg cf7 a'Fb] ;xdtLsf] bf];|f] a'+bfdf logn] o:tf] k|ltj¢tf JoQm u/]sf 5g\ M d'n'sdfM …sfg'gL /fHosf] cjwf/0ff nufot nf]stflGqs d"NodfGotfdf cfwfl/t 11 Pj+ gful/s :jtGqtf, df}lns clwsf/, dfgj clwsf/, k|]; :jtGqtf ;lxtsf], k|lt:kwf{Tds ax'bnLo zf;g k|0ffnLnfO{ ;~rfng x'g]5 -cGgk'0f{ kf]i6, # c;f/ @)^#_ . x'gt cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^$ ;fn r}t @* df ;DkGg r'gfjåf/f :Yfflkt ;+ljwfg ;efn] gofF ;+ljwfg gjgfpGh]n;Dd sfod /xg] 5 . tyflk o;sf] / pQm cf7 a'b] ;xdltsf] cfwf/df d'n'sdf s:tf] /fHoAoj:yf sfod x'g] xf] eGg] cg'dfg ;lxt at{dfgdf sfod /x]sf ;+a}wflgs Pj+ sfg'gL k| fawfgx?sf cfwf/df g]kfn ;/sf/ -sfo{kflnsf_ sf] sfo{ k¢ltnfO{ ;'zf;gsf d'Vo cjojx?M kf/blz{Qf, ;xeflutf / pQ/bfloTjsf cfwf/df ef]nLsf gLlt lgwf{/sx?sf nflu ;Gb{e ;fdfu|L x'g;Sg] u/L ljifoa:t'sf] ljBdfg ;+ljwfg / sfg'gx? sf] cfwf/df ljZn]if0f ug]{ k|of; ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} o;nfO{ sfo{kqsf] ;Ldf -Limitation) sfod ul/Psf] 5\ . ljifoj:t'sf] ljZn]if0fsf] 12 nflu oL ZfJbx?sf] b]xfPsf kl/efiffnfO{ cfwf/ dflgPsf 5g\ M != kf/blz{tf: hfgsf/L cfbfg k|bfg / v'Nnf ?kdf sfd ug]{ k|0ffnL8 @= ;xeflutfTds jf ;xeflutf k| 0ffnLM gful/snfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dsf] e]befj ljgf lgaf{rg dfkm{t cfkm\gf k| ltlgwL 5gf}6 ug]{ jf ltgnfO{ abNg] clwsf/sf] cltl/Qm cfk"mnfO{ c;/ kfg] { ljifosf] lg0f{o Pj+ ;f] sf] sfof{Gjogdf efu lng kfpg] s'/f / cfkm\gf xs lxt / rfxgfsf ljifodf ;DalGwt clwsf/L pk/ k| ToIf ?kdf jf laleGg ;+3 ;+:yf dfkm{t bjfj lbg] / clwjfrg ug]{ s'/f .9 #=pQ/bfloTjk"0f{ Joaxf/M tf]lsPsf] sfd jf Kf|Tofof]lht sfo{k|ltsf] lhDd]jf/Lsf ;fy} kbflwsf/Lx?åf/f cfkm\gf clwsf/ / 8 9 Sharing information and action in an open manner (UNDP 1997). All men and women should have a voice in decision making, either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests. Such broad participation is built on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively (Ibid). 13 st{Josf] ;Dkfbgaf/]df hjfjb]xL ug]{, lng] tT;DaGwL ;dfnf]rgfk|lt ;r]t /xg] / c;kmntf, c;Ifdtf / c?nfO{ wf]sf x'g uPsf]df cfk"mn] ;DalGwt KfIfx?k|lt hjfkmb]xL :jLsf/ ug{' kg]{ s'/f .10 10 The requirement that officails answer to stakeholders on the disposal of their powers and duties, act on criticisms or requirements made of them and accept (some) responsibility for failure, incompetence or deceit. (Ibid) 14 efu ! jt{dfg d'ne"t sfg'gL cfwf/ !=!= kf/blz{tf ;DalGwt k|fjwfgx? dflyg} pNn]v u/L ;lsof] ls kf/blz{tf eGgfn] hfgsf/L cfbfg k|bfg / v'Nnf ?kdf sfd ug]{ k|0ffnL eg]/ j'e\mg' kb{5 . o;sf cfwf/df ljBdfg ;+ljwfg / sfg'gx? nfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ ltgdf kf/blz{tfsf ;DjGwdf b]xfPsf] Joj:yf ePsf] kfOG5 . -s_ g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# ;"rgfsf] xsM k|To]s gful/snfO{ cfkm\gf] jf ;fj{hlgs ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} klg ljifosf] ;"rgf dfUg] jf kfpg] xs x'g] 5 . t/ sfg'gåf/f uf]Ko /fVg' kg]{ ;"rgflbg s;}nfO{ s/ nufPsf] dfgLg] 5}g - wf/f @& _ . uf]kgLotfsf] xsM s'g} klg JolQmsf] hLp, cfjf;, ;DklQ, lnvt, 15 tYof‹, kqfrf/, rl/q;DjGwL s'/fx?sf] Uff]kgLotf sfg'gåf/f tf]lsPsf] cj:yfdf afx]s cgltqmDo x'g]5 -wf/f @*_, / sfo{ ljefhg / sfo{ ;DkfbgM g]kfn ;/sf/af6 :jLs[t lgodfjnL adf]lhd g]kfn ;/sf/sf] sfo{ ljefhg / sfo{ ;Dkfbg x'g]5 === lgodfjnLsf] kfngf eof] jf ePg eGg] k|Zg s'g} cbfntdf p7fpg ;lsg] 5}g -wf/f $#[email protected] / #_, -v_ sfgg'sf k|fjwfgx? pk/f]Qm ;+j}wflgs k|fjwfgcg'?k sfo{ ljefhg / ;DKffbgsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/ -sfo{ ljefhg_ lgodfjnL @)^$, g]kfn ;/sf/ -sfo{ ;Dkfbg_ lgodfjnL, @)^$ / ;"rgfsf] xs ;DjGwL P]g @)^$ agfO{ hf/L ul/Psf 5g\ . logdf kf/blZ{ftf ;DjGwdf tn pNn]v u/]cg';f/sf] Joj:yf ePsf 5g\ M dGqfnosf] sfo{ ljefhg 16 gLlt lg0ff{0f / sfof{Gjog u/fpg] sfo{sf] d'Vo lhDd]jf/L dGqfnodf11 lglxt 5 . logsf] sfo{ ljefhg g]kfn ;/sf/ -sfo{ ljefhg_ lgodfjnL, @)^$ åf/f ePsf] 5 . o; lgodfjnLcg';f/ xfn @@ dGqfnox?12 sfod ePsf 5g\ . s'g} Ps dGqfnosf] sfd csf{] dGqfnodf ;fg'{ k/]df dlGqkl/ifb\sf] lg0f{o cfjZos kb{5 . k|To]s dGqfnosf] lhDd]jf/L dGqLdf 5 eg] ;fd'lxs ?kdf ;/sf/sf] sfo{ ;~rfngsf] lhDd]jf/L dlGqkl/ifb\df lglxt 5 . g]kfn /fhkqdf ;"rgf hf/L u/L k| wfgdGqLn] s'g} dGqLnfO{ Ps jf ;+u7gfTds ?kdf g]kfn ;/sf/ s]Gb|Lo :t/sf sfof{nox? -dGqfno, ljefu, sfof{no_ / sfo{ :ynsf sfo{fnox? -If]qLo, c~rn, lhNnf / :yfgLo sfo{qmd_ ljeflht 5g\ . t/ cfb]zsf] >[+vnfTds b[li6sf]0fjf6 ljrf/ ubf{ sfo{:Yfnsf sfof{nox? s'g} g s'g} dGqfno cGt{ut kb{5g . / ;/sf/sf] sfo{ ljefhg dGqfnosf] cfwf/df x'g] u/]sf] 5 . 12 cy{Ù cfjf; tyf ef{lts of]hgfÙ påf}u, jfl0fHo tyf cfk'tL{Ù sfg'g, Gofo tyf ;+;bLo Joj:yfÙ s[lif tyf ;xsf/LÙ u[xÙ hn;|f]Ù k//fi6\Ù e'dL;'wf/ tyf Joj:yfkgÙ dlxnf, jfnjflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0fÙ /IffÙ jg tyf e";+/If0fÙ jftfj/0f, lj1fg tyf k|ljlwÙ zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0fÙ lZfIff tyf v]ns'bÙ ;fdfGo k| zf;gÙ ;'rgf tyf ;~rf/Ù ;+:sl[t, ko{6g / gful/s p8|\8ogÙ :jf:y tyf hg;Vof+Ù :yfgLo ljsf;Ù >d tyf oftfoft Joj:yf / k|wfg dGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifbsf] sfo{fno . 11 17 PseGbf a9L dGqfnosf] sfo{ef/ ;'Dkg ;Sb5g\ . ;fy}, k|wfgdGqLn] s'g} dGqfnonfO{ tf]lsPsf] sfddWo] s]xL sfd cfkm}+n] jf ;DalGwt dGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df csf]{ s'g} dGqLn] x]g]{ u/L tf]Sg ;Sb5g . cfkm"nfO{ tf]lsPsf] sfd ;Dkfbg ug]{÷u/fpg] lhDd]jf/L ;DalGwt dGqLsf] xf] -lgodfjnL sf lgodx? -g+=% / ^_ . ;/sf/sf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ;/sf/sf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg g]kfn ;/sf/ -sfo{ ;Dkfbg_ lgodfjnL, @)^$ cg';f/ eO/x]sf] 5 . of] lgodfjnL % kl/R5]bx? / @ cg';rLdf ljeflht 5 . kl/R5]b ! df lgodfjnLsf] gfd lgodfjlndf k|of]u EfPsf zJbx?sf kl/efiff, / cGo kl/R5]bx?df pNn]v ePsf s'/fx?sf] hfgsf/L u/fOPsf] 5 . kl/R5]b @ df dGqfnoaf6 km5of}{6 x'g] / o;sf] nflu lhDD]fjf/ kbflwsf/L / /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]u Tfyf laleGg 18 dGqfnox?M ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno, sfg'g, Gofo tyf ;+;bLo Joa:yf dGqfno, cy{ dGqfno, u[x dGqfno, :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno, k//fi6\ dGqfno cflb tyf dxfGofoflwjQmf;‘u k/fdz{ lng' kg] { s'/fx?sf cltl/Q ljw]os jf cWofb]z agfpFbf ckgfpg' kg]{ sfo{ljlw pNn]v 5 . kl/R5]b # df k|wfgdGqLaf6 ;Dkfbg u/Lg] sfo{x?, kl/R5]b $ df dlGqkl/ifbaf6 x'g] sfdx? Tft\ ;DjGwL k| ls|of Pj+ dlGqkl/ifbsf] k|jtmf tf]Sg] s'/fx? / kl/R5]b % df ljljw ljifox? ;dfa]; EfPsf 5g\ . dlGqkl/ifb\df k|:t't ug'{ kg] { elg $# j6f ljifox? ;dfj]z u/LPsf 5g\ . dlGqkl/ifbdf k|:t't u/Lg] k|:tfjsf] 9f‘rf lgodfjnLsf] cg';"rL df lbOPsf] 5 . ;"rgfsf] xs ;"rgfsf] d'VotM xs;DaGwL ;/sf/L sfd 19 P]g, @)^$ sf/jfxL af/] gful/sn] ;"rgf kfpg] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# åf/f k|bQ clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug] { p2]Zoåf/f ag]sf] b]lvG5 . o;}sf/0fn] xf]nf ;f] P]gsf] k|:tfjgfdf /fHosf] sfd sf/jfxL v'Nnf / kf/blz{ x'g] s'/f pNn]v x'g'sf] ;fy} gfu/Lssf] ;';'lrt x'g] clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f Pj+ ; +j]bgzLn ;"rgfsf] ;+/If0f ul/g] s'/f pNn]v ePsf] 5 . o; P]gdf pNn]v ePcg';f/ g]kfnL gful/snfO{ g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, cv08tf, /fli6«o ;'/Iff, ;fj{hlgs zflGt ;'Joj:yf jf cGt/f{li6«o ;DaGwdf uDeL/ vnn kfg]{, ck/fwsf] cg';Gwfg, txlssft tyf cleof]udf k|ToIf c;/ kfg]{, cfly{s, Jofkfl/s tyf df}lb|s lxt jf af}l4s ;DklQsf] ;+/If0f jf a}+lsª jf Jofkfl/s uf]kgLotfdf uDeL/ cf3ft, ljleGg hfthflt jf ;Dk|bfoaLrsf] ;';DaGwdf k|ToIf vnn kfg]{ / JolQmut uf]kgLotf / JolQmsf] hLp, Hofg, ;DklQ, :jf:Yo, jf ;'/Iffdf vt/f k'¥ofpg] vfnsf ljifo afx]s cGo ljifodf ;/sf/L lgsfoaf6 ;"rgf dfUg] 20 clwsf/ 5 . o; sfdsf nflu k|To]s ;fj{hlgs lgsfon] cfkm";Fu /x]sf ;"rgfsf] juL{s/0f Pj+ cWofjlws u/L ;do ;dodf k|sflzt ug'{ kg]{ ePsf] 5 . k|sflzt ug'{kg]{ ;"rgfsf ? kdf !# k|sf/sf ljifox? -cg';'rL !_ ;dfj]z ePsf 5g . of] sfd ;Dkfbg ug{ k|To]s lgsfon] cfkm" sxfF ;"rgf k|jfx ug] { clwsf/Lsf] Joj:yf u/L ltgnfO{ k|lzlIft ug'{ kg]{ ePsf] 5 . s]xL ;do cufl8 k| sflzt vj/cg';f/ !^ dGqfnox? [email protected]@ dWo]_ åf/f k|jQmfx? Tff]ls;s]sf 5}gg\ -lb sf7df08f} kf]i6, dfu{ #, @)^$ -gf]e]Dj/ !(, @))&_ . P]gcg';f/ ;/sf/L lgsfon] dfq ;"rgf k|jfx ug'{+ kg]{ geO{ g]kfnL gful/sn] ;d]t ;"rgf dfu ug{ ;Sg] clwsf/ kfPsf 5g\ . ;f] cg';f/ s'g} klg g]kfnL gful/sn] P]gdf Joj:yf ePcg';f/ ;"rgf dfu ug{ ;Sg], To;/L dfu ePsf] ;"rgf tTsfn pknAw u/fpg' kg]{, g;lsg] eP lsg g;lsg] xf] jf cf+lzs ?kdf pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] eP ;f]xL 21 s'/fsf] hfgsf/L ;"rgf dfUg]nfO{ ;DjlGwt ;"rgf clwsf/Ln] lbg'kg]{5 . k| fKt ;"rgf cf+lzs eP jf unt nfu]df jf lrQ ga'em]df To;sf] lj/f]w ;DalGwt JolQmn] ;"rgf lbg] clwsf/Lsf] tfn'sjfnf -dflysf clwsf/L_ ;dIf ph'/L lbg ;Sg]5 . To;df hfFra'em u/L tfn'sjfnfn] lg0f{o lbg'kg] {5 . ;DalGwt lgsfosf ;"rgf lbg] ljifosf] /]vb]v Pj+ gful/ssf] ;"rgf kfpg] xssf] ;+/If0f, ;Djw{g Pj+ P]gsf k| fjwfgx? k|rngdf Nofpg] sfdsf nflu tLg ;b:oLo /fli6«o ;"rgf cfof]usf] Joj:yf ;d]t P]gn] u/]sf] 5 . ;f] cfof]usf ;b:ox?sf] lgo'lQm l;kmfl/;sf nflu P]gn] ;+;b Joj:yflksfsf ;efd'v -cWoIf_, ;"rgf dGqL / g]kfn kqsf/ dxf; +3sf ;efklt -;b:ox?_ ePsf] Ps ;ldlt u7gsf] Joj:yf u/L ;"rgfsf] xs;DaGwL s'/fnfO{ dxTj lbg] sfdsf ;fy} ;+/If0f ug{ vf]h]sf] b]lvG513 -cg';"rL @_ . 13 . @)^$ ;fn r}t dd;fGt ;Dd cfof]usf ;b:ox?sf] gfd l;kmfl/; ePklg lgo'Qm eO;s]sf lyPgg, xfn} -j]zfv @)^%_ df cWoIf / ;b:ox?sf] lgo'lQm ePsf] s'/f ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . 22 ;'zf;g -Joj:yfkg tyf ;~rfng_ P]g @)^$ lg0f{o ubf{ kf/bl{z{tf sfod ug'{ kg]{M of] P]gcg';f/ ;/sf/n] lg0f{o ubf{ kf/blz{tf sfod ug'{ kb{5 . o; P]g jf cGo k|rlnt sfg'gadf]lhd lg0f{o ug{ kfpg] clwsf/Ln] s'g} ljifodf lg0f{o ubf{ kf/+bzL{14 9+uaf6 ug'{ kg]{{{5 14 P]gsf] k|of]hgsf] nflu kf/blz{tf eGgfn] lglZrt dfkb08sf] cfwf/df lg0f{o ug{'kg]{ k|ls|of ;Demg'k5{ / ;f] zAbn] k|rlnt sfg'gadf]lhd uf]Ko /fVg' kg]{ s'/fnfO{ k|lts'n c;/ kfg]{ 5}g . adf]lhd kf/blz{tf sfod ug{ lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/Ln] lg0f{o ug'{kg]{ ljifodf cfkm\gf dftxtsf sd{rf/Lsf] /fo tyf k/fdz{nfO{ Wofg lbg ;Sg]5 . lg0f{o ug{'kg] { ljifosf] sf/jfxL Ps txaf6 k|f/De eO{ csf]{ txaf6 lg0f{o ug'{ kg]{ /x]5 eg] k|To]s txdf ;+nUg /xg] kbflwsf/Ln] ;f] ljifodf cfkm\gf] :ki6 /fo 7x/;lxt lg0f{o ug'{kg]{ ljifo lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/L;dIf k]z ug'{ kg] {5 . adf]lhd lg0f{o ug]{ k|ls|ofdf ;+nUg /x]sf k|To]s txsf kbflwsf/Ln] k]z u/]sf] /.odf s'g} k|Zg p7]sf] b]lvPdf lg0f{o ug] { clwsf/Ln] lg0f{o ubf{ To:tf] k|Zgsf] klg ;Daf]wg ug'{ kg]{5 . s'g} lg0f{o ubf{ sfg'gL jf k|fljlws k|Zgsf] klg lg?k0f ug'{kg]{ /x]5 / To:tf] ljifodf s'g} sfg'g lj1 jf k|fljlwssf] /fo lng lg0f{o ug]{ clwsf/Ln] dgfl;j 7fg]df To:tf] /fo lng ;Sg]5 . /fo lnPsf]df To:...
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