Biologyfeb7 - Biol 101 February 2008 Molecular Genetics o...

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Biol 101 ? February 2008 Molecular Genetics o Finding the Code Griffith – pneumonia experiments (1928) Pathogenic bacteria, non-pathogenic bacteria TRANSFORMATION Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod (1944) Only pathogenic DNA needed for transformation (DNA can change genetics of bacteria) Hershey and Chase Bacteriophage (virus attacks bacteria) Labeled DNA with P 32 (found inside) Labeled protein with S 35 (found outside) o Structure of DNA Nucleotides Phosphate group 5 carbon sugar – deoxyribose Nitrogen-containing base Watson and Crick Model Coiled helix Double chain A-T (2 bonds) G-C (3 bonds) o Replication of DNA
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DNA splits Complementary nucleotides added Semi-conservative Republican – each strand is half-old and half-new Complementary base pairing Nucleosome (DNA curled around proteins) 3 base sequence = codon
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Unformatted text preview: RNA has uracil instead of thymine Phenyldenine (Protein) o Information in DNA o Chromosomes contain: Protein Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • How is the code “read” i.e. a protein synthesized? o Messenger RNA Formed along one side of DNA • Ribose is a different sugar than deoxyribose • RNA has Uracil for Thymine (A-U vs. A-T) • RNA single-stranded M-RNA moves to cytoplasm DNA rejoins: transcription completed o Transfer RNA (can be used over and over again) Begin translation One type of t-RNA for each amino acid Each t-RNA molecule has a triplet anticodon on one end and an amino acid attachment site on the other o Ribosomal RNA Makes up ribosomes “Reads” message and attaches appropriate amino acid to growing chain...
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