Red Clay Gamebook (Aug 2015).pdf - Red Clay 1835 Cherokee Removal and the Meaning of Sovereignty Game Book Jace Weaver Laura Adams Weaver Game Book 1 \u00a9

Red Clay Gamebook (Aug 2015).pdf - Red Clay 1835 Cherokee...

This preview shows page 1 out of 177 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 177 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Red Clay, 1835: Cherokee Removal and the Meaning of Sovereignty Game Book Jace Weaver Laura Adams Weaver Game Book 1 © Jace Weaver and Laura Adams Weaver, 2015 2 Game Book TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 5 Brief Overview of the Game ................................................................................................ 5 Prologue: On the Road to Red Clay .................................................................................... 6 Red Clay, October 1835 ..............................................................................................................................................6 Prelude: The Hermitage ..............................................................................................................................................8 How to React ..................................................................................................................... 10 Game Setup ............................................................................................................................................................... 10 Game Play .................................................................................................................................................................. 10 Game Requirements ................................................................................................................................................. 10 PART 2: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ................................................... 12 Chronology ........................................................................................................................ 12 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 14 Cherokee Culture and the Land ........................................................................................ 22 How the World Was Made ...................................................................................................................................... 22 Selu (Corn Mother) ................................................................................................................................................... 23 The Removed Townhouses .................................................................................................................................... 24 Women in Cherokee Culture .................................................................................................................................. 25 Disputes, Crime, and Conflict Resolution ............................................................................................................ 26 PART 3: THE GAME ................................................................................... 28 Major Issues ...................................................................................................................... 28 In the Historical Moment ........................................................................................................................................ 30 Outline of Game Sessions.................................................................................................. 32 A Word on Cherokee Rhetoric ............................................................................................................................... 33 Victory Objectives ............................................................................................................. 34 Assignments ...................................................................................................................... 34 Constituency Reports ............................................................................................................................................... 34 Personal Agreements ................................................................................................................................................ 35 Scores .......................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Grades ......................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Additional Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 35 Counterfactuals .................................................................................................................. 35 Game Book 3 PART 4: ROLES AND FACTIONS ............................................................. 36 Cherokee Governance and National Council Proceedings .............................................. 37 Factions ............................................................................................................................. 37 The National Party (Ross Faction) ......................................................................................................................... 37 The Treaty Party (Ridge Faction) ........................................................................................................................... 38 Whites ......................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Indeterminates ........................................................................................................................................................... 39 Guests at the Hermitage Debate ............................................................................................................................ 40 PART 5: CORE TEXTS ................................................................................ 42 Cherokees and the Policies of Civilization John Ridge, Letter to Albert Gallatin .................................................................................................................... 43 Elias Boudinot, An Address to the Whites ................................................................................................................ 50 Assault on Indian Sovereignty Georgia General Assembly, Georgia Indian Laws................................................................................................... 58 United States Congress, Indian Removal Act ........................................................................................................... 63 Cherokee Nation v. The State of Georgia ...................................................................................................................... 65 Worcester v. Georgia ...................................................................................................................................................... 65 Legal Commentaries James Kent, “Of the Foundation of Title to the Land” ..................................................................................... 84 Cherokee Nation, “Memorial of the Cherokee Indians”.................................................................................... 87 Joseph Story, FROM Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States .............................................................. 95 Alexis de Toqueville, FROM Democracy in America ................................................................................................ 95 The Debates About Indian Removal Cherokee Women, Three Petitions ...................................................................................................................... 105 John Ross, et al., Letter to John C. Calhoun ...................................................................................................... 108 Elias Boudinot, Editorials in the Cherokee Phoenix ............................................................................................. 111 Lewis Cass, “Removal of the Indians” ................................................................................................................ 116 William Penn [Jeremiah Everts]............................................................................................................................ 125 Andrew Jackson, FROM First Message to Congress.......................................................................................... 132 Theodore Frelinghuysen, Speech Before the Senate ......................................................................................... 135 Wilson Lumpkin, Speech Before Congress ........................................................................................................ 144 Andrew Jackson, FROM Second Message to Congress ..................................................................................... 151 American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missionaries, Resolutions On Indian Removal ............. 154 George Troup, “The Sovereignty of the State” ................................................................................................. 161 Wilson Lumpkin, “Message to General Assembly” .......................................................................................... 162 Cherokee Indians [Treaty Party], Memorial of a Council Held at Running Waters ..................................... 165 Bibliography .....................................................................................................................173 4 Game Book PART I: INTRODUCTION BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE GAME Red Clay, 1835: Cherokee Removal and the Meaning of Sovereignty is a “reacting” game. Reacting games are a specific kind of immersive roleplaying game, which gives students the opportunity to grapple with the issues that shaped pivotal moments in the past. They do this by assuming historical personae, by reading primary sources relating to the events (making their own judgments about them and using them to inform their characters and to shape the arguments they will make), and then by participating, as their character, in the actual events. This combination of elements creates a deep and engaged understanding of the motivations, ideas, and decisions that shaped past events. Through this immersive, reacting process, they learn the history at a deeper level than in the conventional classroom. Reacting games are not re-enactment exercises; there are no scripted outcomes. Nor are they simulations that focus on understanding specific processes. Instead, these games focus on an animated, contextualized, and dramatic collision of ideas. This game module involves the debate over Indian Removal in the 1830s, focusing upon the Cherokee. When Andrew Jackson was inaugurated as President of the United States in 1829, removal of Indians from what is today the American Southeast to west of the Mississippi River became the official policy of the United States government. President Jackson made securing congressional authorization for this policy his top legislative priority. This reached fruition in May 1830 with passage of the Indian Removal Act. The Act authorized the president to negotiate new treaties with the Indian tribes that would provide for exchange of their lands in the East for comparable lands in the trans-Mississippi West. One-by-one, each of the other four of the so-called Five Civilized Tribes (the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole) capitulated and agreed to removal treaties. By 1835, the Cherokee remained the lone holdout. Pressure upon the Cherokee Nation was intense. Gold had been discovered in the Nation in 1829. As a result, white Georgians flocked into their territory. The state of Georgia passed laws extending the state’s jurisdiction over Cherokee lands. The Cherokee tried to fight the onslaught in the federal courts of the United States, but that ultimately proved fruitless. Red Clay, 1835 begins with a fictional (although historically plausible) debate at the Hermitage, President Jackson’s Tennessee home, about the reality, nature, and extent of the sovereignty of the Indian nations. The action then moves to an actual historical meeting at Red Clay, Tennessee, where the government of the Cherokee Nation sits, because the Georgia general assembly had forbidden it from meeting in that state. It is October 1835 and time for the meeting of the Cherokee National Council. Reverend John Schermerhorn, the United States Treaty commissioner to the Cherokee is present. At the Council meeting, he will present the United States’ terms for a removal treaty. The discussion then focuses on the critical questions. Will the proposed treaty be accepted or rejected? Are there alternatives? Shall the Cherokee move West as the whites want, or should they struggle to remain in the lands that their ancestors have inhabited for generations? Is it better to fight to maintain their Appendix: Primary Documents 5 national sovereignty over their homelands, or they keep the Cherokee people intact and protect them by removing to new lands? 6 PROLOGUE: ON THE ROAD TO RED CLAY Red Clay Tennessee, October 1835 The Cherokee National Council is convening for its annual fall meeting. In the old days you looked forward to such times. These were times to see old friends and renew acquaintances. Though the serious business of governing the Cherokee Nation went on, there was also much time for laughter, feasting, storytelling, and enjoying a drink around the fire. You remember as a child being terrified by stories of Spearfinger and delighted by, although wary of, the antics of Jisdu, the rabbit trickster. Things have changed since those days, which are not that long ago in terms of years but seem aeons ago given all that has transpired. You remember that “the proceedings were conducted with great solemnity. It was the Cherokee way for orators to speak one at a time, in a deliberate voice, slowly and calmly. Though speeches were sometimes long, no one interrupted …. Everyone waited politely for an orator to conclude. Then the next speaker would rise and without gestures give his arguments.”1 Council deliberations are still judicious and deliberate. The principle guiding the Council is unchanged: “The trust placed in our hands is a sacred trust.” But it is not as it once was. The strict decorum that characterized gatherings in National council is breaking down. Speakers use gestures. There are grunts of affirmation and other reactions to the speakers, though these are still generally polite. Yet there are greater worries than a decline in politesse. These are dark and dangerous times for the Cherokee. The United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, providing for the relocation of the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole) from their homelands in the midst of the American Southeast to new lands west of the Mississippi. One by one, the other tribes have all capitulated—first the Choctaw and then the others in turn. Only the Cherokee remain defiant of Georgia and federal power. Never before has the threat to the Cherokee been greater. You arrive in Red Clay and climb down to unhitch your horse from the wagon. You are comforted by the soothing sounds of Blue Hole Spring, but your mind wanders. The open-air pavilion where the Council meets is a throwback to old-style Cherokee government, but Red Clay is not New Echota. The capital of the Cherokee Nation, New Echota held not only a modern Council House, but the Supreme Court building and the print shop, home to the remarkable press that could print in English and also the language of your people. By the late 1820s, the Cherokee had greatly expanded their agricultural production, and the Nation boasted more than 20 schools and more than 60 blacksmith shops. Now you are reduced to this. Red Clay. You grumble under your breath at the cursed White men in Milledgeville. The government of Georgia has tried for more than three decades to induce Cherokee leaders to sign away what little was left of the once extensive Cherokee homeland and to leave northwest Georgia and move the people west of the Mississippi River. Finally, the General Assembly simply passed laws saying it was so. That Cherokee land belonged to Georgia and that the Nation itself, the Committee and Council your people had so lovingly crafted, were illegal. Instead of the comfortable surroundings of New Echota in Georgia, the National Council will be meeting, as it has for years now, amid the rude outdoor pavilions and log structures of Red Clay in Tennessee. The sound of young people playing stickball is heartening, but their parents are not so carefree. You see familiar faces, but the strain is evident in their visages. You can’t help but listen to the raised voices of two men arguing. “The Ridge is a strong leader. A hero. He knows the ways of the White government, and he is certain they will not give up.” And the terse reply: “He will sell Appendix: Primary Documents 7 our country.” You’re not sure what to think. You know that Reverend Samuel Worcester, the man from Vermont who several years ago went to jail rather than comply with Georgia law, now speaks in favor of removal. You pick up a copy of the latest issue of the Phoenix, the Cherokee national newspaper. You wonder for a moment that it is even still published. Then your mind snaps back to the present. You have heard rumblings that some want to resume national elections, which Principal Chief Ross suspended because of the crisis. You want information about the Cherokees’ situation, but it seems harder and harder to get a clear picture. “How did we get to this point?” you reflect. The road to this council at Red Clay has been long, troubled, and difficult. Prelude: The Hermitage Before you even convene at Red Clay in October, however, the maelstrom of events is swirling around you. In May of 1834, an unauthorized delegation signed a removal treaty in Washington City. That delegation was headed by Andrew Ross, Principal Chief John Ross’s own brother! It also included some of the most prominent members of the Ridge faction, including Major Ridge, Elias Boudinot, John Walker, Jr. (known as Jack Walker), and David Vann. Though these last named Councilors refused to affix their signatures, Andrew Ross and a number of others did so. When news of the treaty reached the Cherokee Nation, the outcry could not have been clearer or louder. Second Chief George Lowrey, a friend of yours, had gathered 13,000 signatures on a petition protesting the actions by those Elijah Hicks labeled “Kitchen Chiefs.” John Ross, when informed of the “treaty,” fired off a letter to John Eaton, Secretary of War Cass’s predecessor, whom he had appointed to negotiate the treaty. The Principal Chief wrote, “And in conclusion I will take occasion to add, that in behalf of the Cherokee nation east of the Mississippi…I do hereby, in the face of Heaven & Earth, before God and Man, most solemnly protest against any treaty whatever being entered into with those of whom you say one is in progress, so as to affect the rights and interests of the Cherokee nation….”2 The United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty without the approval of the Cherokee National Council. Within the Cherokee Nation, there were calls for the impeachment of the Kitchen Chiefs. John Ross called a meeting of the National Council for Red Clay in August to debate the supposed treaty. At first, it looked as though the Ridge faction might prevail, but Tom Foreman’s stirring rhetoric swayed the day, and the treaty was rejected. But tempers were running hot. Amidst the debate, Jack Walker left the deliberations early. He was bushwhacked and his body left upon the road as a signal to the Ridges. By negotiating a removal treaty in Washington (even one he hims...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture