Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Proteins and Their Synthesis Functional RNAs important in protein synthesis A tRNA-translate three-nucleotide cogon in mRNA

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Chapter 9: Proteins and Their Synthesis I) Functional RNAs important in protein synthesis A) tRNA—translate three-nucleotide cogon in mRNA into corresponding amino acid B) rRNA—major components of ribosomes, assemble amino acids to form protein whose sequence is encoded in a specific mRNA C) make up largest fraction of total cellular RNA 1) More stable than mRNAs 2) Transcription of these constitutes >1/2 of all transcription II) Proteins—main determinates of biological function and form A) Composed of amino acids 1) Have side chain (Reactive (r) group) 2) Linked together by peptide bonds between the amino end of one and the carboxyl end of another B) Four levels of structure 1) Primary structure—linear sequence of amino acids 2) Secondary structure—local regions of polypeptide folding (most common are α helix and the pleated sheet) 3) Tertiary structure—folding of secondary structure 4) Quaternary structure—some proteins, subunits that are composed of 2+ separate folded polypeptides joined by weak bonds C) Types 1) Globular proteins—compact structures including enzymes and antibodies 2) Fibrous proteins—linear shape, in skin, hair, tendons D) Specific shape allows it to do its specific job in a cell, determined by primary structure and conditions in cell E) Domains—amino acid sequences or conserved protein folds associated with particular functions F) Colinearity--Linear correspondence b/t nucleotides in DNA and amino acids in protein III) Genetic code A) Overlapping v. nonoverlapping codes 1) Nonoverlapping—consecutive amino acids specified by consecutive codons 2) Overlapping—consecutive amino acids specific by codons that have some consecutive bases in common 3) Single amino acid changes at one time in one region of protein—non overlapping
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2008 for the course ZOL 341 taught by Professor Dworkin during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Proteins and Their Synthesis Functional RNAs important in protein synthesis A tRNA-translate three-nucleotide cogon in mRNA

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