Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Independent Assortment of Genes I...

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Chapter 3: Independent Assortment of Genes I) Mendel’s law of independent assortment (aka Mendel’s second law)--If genes are on different chromosome pairs they will act independently at meiosis A) Two genes are on different chromosomes, gene pairs are separated by a semicolon (i.e. A/a ; B/b) B) If there are on same chromosome, separated, separated by a slash (i.e. AB/ab) C) In diploids: Results from two equally spindle attachments to centromeres in Anaphase I II) Dihybrid crosses—cross b/t two double heterozygotes (i.e. A/a•B/b x A/a•B/b) A) If on different chromosomes—get a 9:3:3:1 ratio B) The gametic ratio will be 1:1:1:1 i.e R/r ; Y/y =1/4 R/r;Y/y, ¼ R/r;y/y, ¼ r/r;Y/y, ¼ r/r;y/y C) Number of distinct genotypes produced = (Number of genotypes for each pair) number of genes III) Chi-squared (Χ 2 ) test—check ratios against expectations A) To make judgment of whether observed #s are close enough to the expected B) Hypothesis will be rejected as false if there is a probability of <5% of observing a deviation from expectations at least as large as the one actually observed C) X 2 =Σ(Observed-Expected) 2 /Expected for all classes D)
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