Lecture 1.docx - -exposure to any drugs including alcohol...

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-exposure to any drugs including alcohol during the adolescent period will increase risk of alcohol disorder. It rewires the part of the brain that processes reward and the actions you take to get that reward -the most addictive drug known to man is nicotine (but not the most dangerous) Pharmacology: the scientific study of drugs Psychopharmacology: scientific study of the effects of drugs on behavior Neuropharmacology: scientific study of drugs that penetrate the CNS (with or without a behavioral effect) Neuropsychopharmacology: does have a behavioral effect Drug: 1. Chemical entity or mixture (natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic) 2. Not required for maintenance of health (in our purposes--not prescription drugs to maintain health) 3. Alters biological function or structure Psychoactive drug: a drug that affects mood, cognition, and/or behavior. -this is most drugs. “psychoactive substance” and “drug: can be used nearly interchangeably. -there are very few drugs that are not psychoactive (don’t alter behavior/mood) such as topical cortisol PURPOSE OF DRUGS? -long history of drug use in humanity 1. religious practices -shamans, Native Americans (peyote), Catholics (wine) 2. Altering one’s mood/state 3. Stimulation (relieving boredom) 4. Social interaction/facilitation -facilitation by a drug esp for males: take drug = easier to be sociable (ie: alcohol) 5. Self-medication (relieve pain/depressive symptoms/withdrawal) -ie: opioids (narcotics/pain killers because of chronic pain from disorders) 6. Pleasure (MDMA, molly, ecstasy, LSD) - drug use is as old as civilization -archeological digs in f contains evidence of substance use for personal pleasure (decorated pipes) -aligns with the rise of agrarian society (structured human society, villages, farming) WHY DO SOME PEOPLE SEEK DRUGS OR HAVE A HIGHER RISK FOR ADDICTION? - Adolescents are capable of drinking more alcohol than adults from animal models o Higher dose required for adolescents to start to feel effects o Adolescent brain is more vulnerable and receives more damage - Possibility: the rewarding effects are MORE rewarding or because aversive effects are LESS aversive? o Adolescents find aversive effects less aversive o There’s evidence for both sides (George Koob)
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IS DRUG USE DIFFERENT COMPARED TO THE PAST? -remained fairly constant 1. ancient cultures use: had opium, mushrooms, marijuana, alcohol, cocaine -some fluctuations: tobacco used more in the past; marijuana used less in the past -tobacco in the US has dropped, and marijuana predicted to #1 crop 2. Historical control : -ancient Egyptians found using alcohol were punished
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  • Fall '19
  • Morphine, Recreational drug use, Psychoactive drug

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