Lecture 16.docx - OPIOIDS INTRODUCTION Opium comes from...

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OPIOIDS: INTRODUCTION - Opium comes from palaver somniferum (poppy plant) o Sleep inducing plant o Native to the Middle East and Mediterranean Sea area, cultivated vigorously in Asia - Getting opium is easy o Take pod scape opium saps out dry it gives off a thick resin which can be eaten or smoked o Opium dens in San Francisco weren’t trafficking poppy pods, were trafficking sap o This is how opium was used up to the 1800s - Historical evidence of opium makes it as old as alcohol o 6000 years ago – it was used by Sumerian society (Iraq and Kuwait) o 3500 years ago, it was used therapeutically by Ancient Egyptians o Ancient Greeks and Romans used opium o Widespread use in Islamic cultures (not banned in Qur’an) - Used for many reasons (cough suppressant, antidiarrheal) - Even in ancient cultures there were instances of people using opium too much o But it wasn’t until just before the Opium Wars that humans on a large scale started recognizing it as problematic Opium wars recap – Britain and China; Britain was trafficking opium through china to sell it and Britain didn’t see it as an issue (only for medicinal purposes). In china it was known to be used recreationally and many began to abuse it and developed use disorders - In 1800s, opioid was being mixed with alcohol in patent medicines like laudanum and paregoric o Opium was mostly consumed orally with exception of smoking in dens - Later, Friedrich Serturner identified morphine as the major active ingredient in opium o Named after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams o Even then, he knew that pure morphine was 10x more potent than whole opium o Also identified codeine in the plants as well - Morphine production was limited at first o Other pain medication of choice at the time was alcohol o In 1870s Charles Romley Alder Wright discovered and synthesized diacetylmorphine (heroin) Heroin is 2x more potent than regular morphine (20x more than opium) OPIOIDS pt. 1 - Codeine (3-methylmorphine) is mainly made through synthetic manufacturing processes today o In cough suppressants and mild pain killers o Comprises about 4% of the poppy plant - Heroin was named by Bayer, drug manufacturing companies, because it had “heroic-like possibilities” o Varied and widespread use, for treating all kinds of ills - 1914 Harrison Narcotics Act o Driving force: to stop opiate trafficking
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Opiates have been a large-scale problem for at least 100 years o The HNA marked the beginning of the U.S. drug crime Morphine availability was going down so heroin became new drug of choice in urban areas Heroin was targeted toward younger people who were poorly educated and of lower socioeconomic status o Increase in heroin use in 1910s laid the track for more substance disorders and organized crime HEROIN PRODUCTION - Two main areas of production o Golden crescent Middle East Has pulled back but still continues in Iraq, Iran, Syria, etc.
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  • Fall '19
  • Morphine

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