Lecture 21.docx - PRESCRIPTION DRUGS BIRTH CONTROL(INTRO[SEE FIRST 3 IMAGES Birth control pill tricks brain into thinking the woman is pregnant o

Lecture 21.docx - PRESCRIPTION DRUGS BIRTH...

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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS: BIRTH CONTROL (INTRO) [SEE FIRST 3 IMAGES] - Birth control pill tricks brain into thinking the woman is pregnant o Can’t get pregnant while “pregnant” because no ovulation occurs o Ovulation is regulated by the hypothalamus through exerting its control over pituitary gland (hormone release) Hypothalamus will release through pituitary or release substances to trigger pituitary All hormones have effects on periphery like follicle stimulation, growth, ovulation, etc. o When P and E are high, the hypothalamus responds by not triggering the release of hormones that would otherwise stimulate the ovaries into ovulation - Pill must be taken daily to keep circulating P and E levels high enough to continue starving off ovulation o Miss one take it ASAP o Miss more than one circulating P and E levels may have dropped low enough for ovulation to occur, must use a secondary form of protection - Used properly, he combination pill is one of the most reliable forms of birth control o Failure rate lower than 0.5% (perfect use) to 8% (imperfect/realistic use) much lower than most alternatives Condoms failure rate: 2% (perfect use), 15% (realistic use) - In addition to low failure rate, the pill also allows for more spontaneity - Main disadvantage: no protection from STDs/STIs - Also, the pill has a number of side effects:
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o Increase risk of blood clots (can lead to heart attack or stroke) Even greater if woman is a smoker o Mood changes Including depression Psychoactive effects Some research found that sustained high hormone levels may affect sensory perception (attractiveness of others) but more work needed - The progestin pill (mini pill) developed to combat side effects of prolonged elevated estrogen levels o Only contains progestin, a synthetic form of P (no estrogen) o Does not prevent ovulation (high estrogen = ovulation) but still induces the forming of a cervical mucus plug (as would be the case in pregnancy) Blocks sperm entry will only stay in vaginal canal and not uterus to fertilize (but sperm can eat mucus – which is why it’s not 100%. Also recommended if you haven’t given birth after 9 months to have sex so sperm can eat the mucus buildup and break the water) o Less effective than combination pill - Also have the continuous pill (ie Seasonale) o Combination pill; 3 months on, 1 week off (rather than 3 weeks on, 1 week off). Woman will only have period once a season or once every three months Contains both sex hormones Take active form of pills for three months and then a week off (in the middle of mini pill and regular pill) - Limitation: remembering to take it everyday o Other forms of contraception have been developed to try to avoid this issue The ring: inserted for 3 weeks, releases P or E or both The patch (transdermal, 1 patch per week for 3 weeks, releases P or E or both, 1 week off) Both have lower failure rates than pill because she doesn’t have to remember - Emergency contraception (“Plan B”) o
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  • Fall '19
  • Pharmacology, Paracetamol, Over-the-counter drug, Anabolic steroid

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