Lecture 6.docx - *Take pictures of incorrect questions...

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**Take pictures of incorrect questions Direct vs indirect agonists ad antagonists - Direct and indirect refer to where the drug’s action takes place o Direct = at the receptor (bind to) o Indirect = anywhere else (drug does not bind directly and can increase or decreases synthesis) increase synthesis (ie dopamine) = more vesicles, release of more neurotransmitter into synapse, more binding onto postsynaptic receptors, larger affect on post neuron and more ion channels being opened and greater chance of postsynaptic firing blocking reuptake: there exists presynaptic transporters that vacuum back up released neurotransmitters from the synapse so the effect on post neuron doesn’t last too long. Blocking = presynaptic transporter is inhibited; drug molecules bind to these transporters (not receptors), and jam/break it. When dopamine is released, instead of being removed from synapse, they stay there longer until drift away or broken down by other machinery. When a drug blocks the transporter results in more neurotransmitter in synapse, continuously brush against postsynaptic receptors and bind to them for longer periods of time, induce greater effect on postsynaptic neuron - Agonist and antagonist refer to the result of the drug’s action with respect to the endogenous neurotransmitter o Agonist = enhanced effect of the endogenous neurotransmitter o Antagonist = diminished effect of the endogenous neurotransmitter o Cocaine = indirect agonist HINDBRAIN - Hindbrain is the “oldest” part (evolutionarily-speaking) - Made up of two parts: o Brainstem Made up of the pons and the medulla oblongata Pons: regulates circadian rhythms Medulla: regulates autonomic life-supporting functions o Cerebellum Responsible for fine motor control Heavily impacted by alcohol intoxication Has its own cortex (cerebellar cortex; the regular cortex is just the cerebral cortex) MIDBRAIN - Midbrain is “younger” than hindbrain but “older” than forebrain - Made up of: o Colliculi: Inferior colliculi – auditory identification & localization Superior colliculi – auditory identification & localization o Dopamine-producing regions:
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Substantia nigra – mostly for motor functions (dark stained) Ventral tegmental area (VTA) – mostly for reward processing Dopamine is not produced anywhere else BRAIN REGIONS FOREBRAIN - Forebrain is the youngest - Constantly discovering more subdivisions - We continuously find functional differences (border of sections can be difficult) - The main regions: o Thalamus – the brain’s relay center, helps info cross across brain regions o Hypothalamus – regulator of motivated behavior and hormonal release, near pituitary gland to control what hormones gland releases o Amygdala – processes powerful emotions like arousal, anxiety, and fear (limbic) o Hippocampus – consolidates and maintains declarative memory (learning; limbic) o Basal ganglia – unconscious motor behaviors (walking, jumping when scared, etc.) o Cortex
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