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HALLUCINOGENS: INTRODUCTION - [SEE IMAGE – types] - [SEE IMAGE – toads] TYPES OF HALLUCINOGENS - Serotonergic o Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) o Mescaline (Peyote cactus) o Psilocybin (shrooms) - Methylated amphetamines: o MDA o MDMA (ecstasy) - Anticholinergic hallucinogens: o Mandrake o Henbane o Belladonna o Jimsonweed - Dissociative anesthetics o Phencyclidine (PCP) o Ketamine - In its own class: salvia divinorum (Salvinorin A, Salvia) INTRODUCTION CONT’D - Origin of serotonergic varies o Mainly found throughout historical records as part of religious ceremonies Native American, Central and South American Shamans and oracles Culturally conserved; hallucinogenic mushrooms are still used today in certain rituals in Mexico Peyote use was recently legalized for Native Americans (preserving culture) Spanish conquistadors know how important these compounds were to indigenous people; seized them, banned their use, gave them in limited quantities o No impact in Europe or NA until 60s - When substances were used in 60s, they became controversial o Declined in later 60s o Scare tactics o Peaked in 80s again and then declined LSD - PSYCHEDELIC MOVEMENT started in Switzerland when Albert Hoffman discovered LSD o Accidentally took a large dose; realize he could try it for psychotherapy KEY FOR UNLOCKING PORTAL INTO PATIENTS PSYCHE
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- Timothy Leary took the portal idea further o Was eventually fired from Harvard because of dosing people at LSD parties without their consent or possibility The effects of LSD are much greater if someone doesn’t know they took it (most likely paranoia) Can have lingering flashback incidents for months or years - LSD is very lipophilic (can cross the BBB very easily) o Most potent psychoactive synthetic drug we are covering; taken in extremely small amounts to achieve effect Microgram amounts measurement; elicit a hallucinogenic effect o How potent is super potent? 1 tablet of regular aspirin = 325,000 micrograms 1 effective dose of LSD = 50-150 micrograms Some effects can be seen at 10 micrograms SEROTONIN SYSTEM - The serotonin system is important for regulating a number of different basic biological processes. This system is involved in many things. This includes: o Basic sleep functioning o Mood o Impulsivity, and o Cognitive functioning - Not restricted to the CNS; can find serotonin and serotonin receptors in your blood and your GI system – gut/brain complex - Most of the CNS serotonin is produced in the dorsal raphe nuclei o Small area in the hindbrain, close to the substantia nigra (where cell bodies produce dopamine for motor behavior) o Projects to: hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus, spine Projections go virtually throughout the brain (modulation) o Deplete serotonin prolonged wakefulness o Stimulate raphe nuclei + increase serotonin release analgesia, fatigue, changes in appetite and cognitive performance o Serotonin is produced from the amino acid precursor tryptophan
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