Lecture 7.docx - PHARMACOLOGY REVIEW 1 What your body does...

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PHARMACOLOGY REVIEW 1. What your body does to a drug 2. What the drug does to your body - They are not mutually exclusive; they happen simultaneously and influence one another (if your body metabolizes the drug faster (1), then the drug won’t have as much of an effect (2). - Pharmacokinetics = what your body does to the drug o Adsorption: how the drug gets in and adsorbs (route of administration) o Distribution: how the drug gets moved around/distribution – fluids, fat storage o Metabolism: how the drug gets processed and broken down o Elimination/Excretion: how the drug gets removed (cells secrete, body excretion) o Toxicity: what are safe doses, therapeutic doses, lethal doses - Pharmacodynamics – what the drug does to your body ADSORPTION - The process of adsorption, particularly the rate of adsorption, depends on the route of administration - Routes that we will cover: o Oral (absorbed in digestive system) o Inhalational administration (absorbed in lungs) o Transdermal administration (adsorbed via skin patches) o Intranasal (adsorbed in nasal mucosa) o Buccal/sublingual administration (adsorbed in the cheeks/under tongue) o Injectional (site of adsorption depends on where you inject – blood, muscle, skin, etc.) BIOAVAILABILITY – how much of the drug makes it into circulation after you take it (depends on how you take it) - How much is left of the drug by the time it reaches blood circulation (100% when directly injected into vein) - Important because there won’t be a psychoactive effect until in circulation - Described in percentages (50%, 100%, etc.) o If 60% of the drug molecules are metabolized (broken down and not circulated) before reaching circulation, then the drug has a bioavailability of 40% - Not set in stone per drug o It depends on route of administration, stomach contents if passing through digestion, body water levels, body fat percentage, etc. FIRST PASS METABOLISM - When you eat anything, you first get a small amount of ad/absorption in the stomach as the contents are processed - Then, the processed stomach contents go to the small intestine, where mesenteric blood vessels (portal system) take the (enriched) blood from the small intestine to the liver - In the liver, there are enzymes that will break the food/drug molecules down (= first pass metabolism ), and only then will the molecules enter circulation Starts with drug consumption through the gut, and some will be sent to fecal matter, eliminated, metabolized through gut wall, but whatever makes it through stomach will go to SI and the mesenteric
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  • Fall '19
  • Schwann Cell, Glial cell

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