Test Two Review.docx - Test Two Review Chapter Nine and Ten...

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Test Two Review Chapter Nine and Ten The function of the respiratory system: External Respiration- the part of the respiratory process that involves the exchange of gases in the alveoli of the lungs. Internal Respiration - the exchange of O2 and CO2 at the tissue level. Imaginary Lines : Anterior Chest Midsternal line - divides the thorax into equal halves. Left and Right Midclavicular Lines - are parallel to the midsternal line. These lines are drawn threw the left and right clavicles. Lateral Chest Midaxillary Line - divides the lateral chest into equal halves Anterior Axillary Line - situated along the anterolateral chest and is parallel to the midaxillary. Posterior Axillary Line - located on the posterolateral chest wall Posterior Chest Midspinal Line - divides the posterior chest into two equal halves Left and Right Midscapular Lines - pass through the inferior angles of the scapulae in a relaxed upright subject. These lines run parallel to the Midspinal line. Thoracic Wall: The thoracic cavity is formed by the tissues of the chest, upper back, and diaphragm. A cone-shaped cavity that houses lungs, heart, and contents of the mediastinum Protects vital organs and can change in shape to enable air to be moved in and out of the lungs. Formed from epithelial, connective and muscle tissues Parietal Pleura lines the chest wall, mediastinum and diaphragm Visceral Pleura covers the lungs o In between the parietal and visceral pleura is the fluid filled intrapleural space Bones of the Rib Cage Sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebral bones, scapula and clavicle
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1. Sternum a) Manubrium- the top of the sternum b) Gladiolus- body of the sternum c) Xiphoid Process- the bottom of the sternum o Sternal Angle or Angle of Louis is the fused connection between the manubrium and the body. This angle is an external marker of the point where the trachea divides into the left and right main stem bronchi. o Costal Cartilage is on the lateral edges of the manubrium and gladiolus. The joint allows the rib cage to bend and permits the thorax to change in size. o Suprasternal Notch is a shallow depression formed by the superior edge of the manubrium. Also called the Jugular Notch. 2. Ribs True Ribs: Pairs 1-7 o True ribs are attached to the sternum o The first ribs and the upper sternum form the opening into the thorax called the thoracic inlet or operculum False Ribs: Pairs 8-12 o Vertebrochondral rib pairs 8,9 & 10 are indirectly attached to the sternum through a common cartilaginous strap. o Floating ribs are rib pairs 11 & 12 Intercostal Muscles are in between the ribs Bellow the ribs in the costal groove, is a thoracic artery, vein, and nerve Respiratory Muscles Primary Muscles of Ventilation: o They are active will at rest and when the individual exhibits stress-induced increasing in breathing 1. Diaphragm Dome shaped muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavity During the inspiratory phase the diaphragm moves downward, and the abdominal wall is forced outward
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  • Fall '19
  • Pulmonary Circulation

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