Med Surg 1- chapter 1.docx - Med Surg 1 – Chapter 1 Lifespan developmentthe field of study that examines patterns of growth,change and stability in

Med Surg 1- chapter 1.docx - Med Surg 1 – Chapter 1...

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Med Surg 1 – Chapter 1 Lifespan developmentthe field of study that examines patterns of growth,change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the life span Physical development development involving the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses , and the need for food,drink,and sleep Cognitive development development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a persons behavior personality development development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span social development the way in which individuals' interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life age ranges 1. prenatal period - conception to birth 2. infancy and toddlerhood - birth-3 3. preschool period - 3 to 6 4. middle childhood - 6 to 12 5. adolescence - 12 to 20 6. young adulthood - 20 to 40 7. middle adulthood - 40 to 60 8. late adulthood - 60 to death social construction a shared notion of reality that is widely accepted but is a function of society and culture at a given time cohort a group of people born at around the same time in the same place history graded influences biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment age graded influences biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised sociocultural graded influences the social and cultural factors present at a particular time for a particular individual, depending on such variables as ethnicity, social class, and subcultural membership non normative life events specific, atypical events that occur in a particular persons life at a time when such events do not happen to most people continuous change development is gradual, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels discontinuous change development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages critical period a specific time during development when a particular even has its greatest consequences and the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli are necessary for development to proceed normally sensitive period a point of development when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environments, but the absence of those stimuli does not always produce irreversible consequences nature refers to traits, abilities, and capabilities that are inherited from ones parents maturation the predetermined unfolding of genetic information nurturerefers to the environmental influences that shape behavior
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theories explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an unorganized set of facts or principles psychodynamic perspective
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