Exam1StudyGuide.docx - This chapter concentrates on the contact between Indians and early European explorers and settlers in the Americas It begins by

Exam1StudyGuide.docx - This chapter concentrates on the...

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This chapter concentrates on the contact between Indians and early European explorers and settlers in the Americas. It begins by examining the first Americans—the often quite sophisticated Native American cultures in South and North America before European contact. The next major theme is the European expansion pioneered by the Portuguese and Spanish and propelled by the search for African trade and a direct sea route to Asia. Portuguese contact with African societies, the voyages of Columbus, and the Spanish conquest of Mexico and South America are discussed, with critical analysis of the demographic consequences of those contacts. Other aspects of Spanish colonization—including justifications for conquest, economic matters, and Spanish- Indian relations—are also considered. The Spanish priest Bartolomé de Las Casas gives a damning report of Spanish rule in the New World in “Voices of Freedom.” The Pueblo Revolt, an Indian uprising in New Mexico, is also highlighted in “Voices of Freedom” through the account of a Spanish-speaking Indian. The next section focuses on the French and Dutch empires in North America. The relatively few French who lived in New France (French Canada) consisted mainly of fur traders, indentured servants, and Jesuit missionaries. The French drew Indians into the Atlantic economy and into conflict with European powers. The Dutch, mainly interested in trade, established friendly commercial and diplomatic relations with the Iroquois but conflicted with other Indians over land in New Netherland. Chapter 2: Beginnings of English America, 1607-1660 This chapter concentrates on the early history of the Chesapeake and New England colonies, between 1607 and 1660. The chapter begins by exploring the motives behind English colonization of the New World, then considers who was emigrating to North America and for what reasons. Contact with the Indians and the subsequent transformation of Indian life are examined. The settlement in the Chesapeake region, where tobacco emerged as the economic engine, and most early colonists cultivated that crop as indentured servants, is compared with the more family and spiritually oriented, more economically diverse New England settlements. There is an ironic note in the story of New England’s economic development: although Puritanism’s religion- based work ethic partially encouraged the region’s economic growth, the wealth it created eventually weakened the power and influence of Puritan authority. Religion and freedom are common themes in this chapter, relevant to the establishment of Maryland, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. The Puritan distinction between moral liberty and religious freedom plays a significant role in the banishment of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson from the Massachusetts colony. Puritanism and liberty are highlighted in “Voices of Freedom” with excerpts from “The Trial of Anne Hutchinson” and from a speech given by John Winthrop.
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  • Fall '19
  • Colonialism, New Netherland, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Spanish colonization of the Americas

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