Ch_36.pptx - Figure 35.16 Shoot apical meristem Leaf primordia Young leaf Developing vascular strand Axillary bud meristems 0.25 mm Figure 36.1 Ch 36

Ch_36.pptx - Figure 35.16 Shoot apical meristem Leaf...

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Shoot apical meristem Leaf primordia Young leaf Developing vascular strand Axillary bud meristems 0.25 mm Figure 35.16
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Figure 36.1
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Ch. 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants Chapter Objectives : Adaptations for acquiring resources Water, minerals, carbon dioxide and light Different Mechanisms transporting substances over short and long distances How water, minerals and sugars are transported through plant? Transpiration What nutrient plants require and how plant nutrients often involves other organisms.
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Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of vascular plants 1. Above ground – shoots = sunlight and CO2 2. Below ground – roots = water and minerals 3. Earlier/ Algal ancestors of plants absorbed water, minerals and CO2 directly from the water - Transport was simple since all cells were close together 4. Earlier plants produce photosynthetic shoot above the shallow water 5. Shoot = had waxy cuticles and few stomata 6. Anchoring and absorbing function = stem or rhizoids
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Shoot Architecture and Light Capture Positive correlation between leaf size and water availability Plants that grow tall avoid shading from neighboring plants. Vines are an exception = rely on other plants to support their stems In woody plants = stems become thicker through secondary growth Phyllotaxy = arrangement of leaves on stem, feature important in light capture. Is determined by Apical Meristem and is specific to each species Each angiosperm have = alternate Phyllotaxy Sunlight harm leaves = shadowing is advantageous Pygmy Weed : 1.3 mm Raphia regalis : 20 m
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Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals Soil is a resource mined by the root system Taproot systems anchor plants and are characteristic of gymnosperms and eudicots. Root growth can adjust to local conditions For example, roots branch more in a pocket of high nitrate than low nitrate Roots are less competitive with other roots from the same plant than with roots from different plants
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Roots Fungus Figure 36.5
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Different mechanisms transport substances over short or long distances
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Three transport routes for water and solutes are : The apoplastic route , through cell walls and extracellular spaces The symplastic route, through the cytosol The transmembrane route , across cell walls
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Figure 36.6
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