Electricity and Magnetism part 1.pdf - Electricity and Magnetism UNIT 2 Electric Charge Methods of Charging and Discharging and Coulomb's Law Electric

Electricity and Magnetism part 1.pdf - Electricity and...

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Electricity and Magnetism UNIT 2 Electric Charge Methods of Charging and Discharging and Coulomb's Law Electric Charge Charge : basic physical property carried by certain subatomic particles, such as electrons Basis for electromagnetic force Charge has several basic properties : 1 - Type of charge 2- Conservation of charge 3 Attraction/Repulsion 1) Types of charge: Positive Negative Most objects have equal number of positive and negative charges (they are neutral) Only negative charges can move/transfer to other objects
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2) Conservation of Charge Charges can be separated but they cannot be created or destroyed Neutral objects contain equal numbers of positive and negative charges 3) The Laws of Attraction/Repulsion Like charges repel Opposite charges attract Electrostatic forces result from the separation of positive and negative (can be attractive or repulsive forces) Methods of Charing An object becomes “charged” when electrons are transferred to or away from the object Same process involved in chemistry when atoms become charged ions A Na atom becomes a Na + ion when it loses an electron Charging can occur in three different ways: 1. Friction 2. Conduction 3. Induction
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Charging By Friction When charge is transferred by friction , objects become charged when rubbed together. The friction doesn’t generate electric charge but provides the very close contact required for electrons to transfer from one substance to another. Process relies on electron affinity – the material with a higher electron affinity will attract the electrons and become negatively charged Both the balloon and the kid’s hair are neutral before friction If you rub the balloon on your hair, the electrons from your hair will transfer to the balloon ° leaving you positively charged and the balloon negatively charged (this separation of charges also creates an attractive force between the opposite charges) The same thing happens to a kid on a slide. This time the friction and transfer of chargers occurs between the child’s pants and the plastic slide. Charging by Conduction Transfer by conduction involves the contact of a charged object with a neutral object After charging by conduction, the object will have the same charge as the charging object
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Charging by Induction Charging a neutral object by induction occurs without touching the object to a charged object After charging by induction, the object will have the opposite charge of the charging object Charing by induction requires a ground – a ground is something that connects the object to the ground (grounding wire, person) a) The metal sphere is neutral b) Bringing a negatively charged rod close to the neutral ball will cause the electrons to be repelled away from it, creating a cluster of electrons at the other end of the ball.
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  • Fall '19
  • Electric charge

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