Alcohols, Phenols, Thiols and Ethers - Physical Properties and Reactions.pptx

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Review Draw the following ethers in the skeletal structural formula. a) dibutyl ether b) 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropane c) dicyclohexyl ether d) 3-methyltetrahydropyran
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Review
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Review
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Physical Properties Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
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Boiling Points Alcohols Ethers Phenols Hydrogen bonds hold alcohol molecules together, requiring higher temperatures to reach boiling points Have lower boiling points compared to alcohols (of similar size) since they are not held together by hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bonds hold phenol molecules together + their rigid structures result in high boiling points
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Solubility Alcohols Ethers Phenols Can hydrogen bond with water. Those with 1-3 carbons are soluble in water (due to hydrogen bonding).The longer the carbon chain, the less soluble alcohols become. Can form some hydrogen bonds in water, making smaller ethers (2-4 carbons) slightly soluble . Slightly soluble in water (due to hydrogen bonding). The –OH group is also capable of dissociation, making it a weak acid in solution.
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Phenol 6 182 Slightly soluble
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Examples 1. Rank the following compounds in order of increasing boiling point.
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Examples 2. Rank the following compounds in order of increasing solubility.
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Reactions of Alcohols
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1. Dehydration Alcohol loses a water molecule when heated at high temperatures (180ᵒC) with an acid catalyst (H₂SO₄) to form an _______________ The –H and –OH groups are removed from adjacent carbons of the alcohol and a double bond forms between these carbons
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Examples
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Examples
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1. Dehydration
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