Chapter 2.docx - Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING WORDS di two...

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Chapter 2 UNDERSTANDING WORDS di-, two: di saccharide—a molecule composed of two bonded simple sugar units. glyc-, sweet: glyc ogen—complex carbohydrate composed of glucose molecules bonded in a particular way. iso-, equal: iso tope—atom that has the same atomic number as another atom but a different atomic weight. lip-, fat: lip ids—group of organic compounds that includes fats. -lyt, break down: electro lyt e—substance that breaks down and releases ions in water. mono-, one: mono saccharide—a molecule consisting of a single simple sugar unit. poly-, many: poly unsaturated—molecule with two or more double bonds between its carbon atoms. syn-, together: syn thesis—process by which chemicals join to form new types of chemicals. Chemistry considers the composition of substances and how they change. It is possible to study anatomy without much reference to chemistry. However understanding the basics of chemistry is essential for understanding physiology, because body functions result from cellular functions that, in turn, result from chemical changes. The human body consists of chemicals, including salts, water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The food that we eat, liquids that we drink, and medications that we take are chemicals. Matter is anything that has weight and takes up space. This includes all the solids, liquids, and gases in our surroundings as well as in our bodies.
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Atom Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element Elements and Atoms The simplest examples of matter with specific chemical properties are the elements (el´ĕ-mentz). Most elements occur naturally and others are artificially made. Some elements that can be produced artificially, such as Technetium, have important applications in health care. A figure typically given for the number of naturally occurring elements is 92, although this number may be different depending on certain criteria (See Appendix D, Periodic Table of the Elements , for more details). Among the elements are such common materials as iron, copper, silver, gold, aluminum, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Some elements exist in a pure form, but these and other elements are more commonly parts of chemical combinations called compounds (kom´powndz). Elements the body requires in large amounts—such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus—are termed bulk elements . These elements make up more than 95% (by weight) of the human body ( table 2.2 ). Elements required in small amounts are called trace elements . Many trace elements are important parts of enzymes, which are proteins that regulate the rates of chemical reactions in living organisms. Some elements that are toxic in large amounts, such as arsenic, may be vital in very small amounts, and these are called ultratrace elements .
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An atom (at´om) is the smallest unit of an element that has the chemical properties of that element. The atoms that make up each element are chemically identical but they differ from the atoms that make up other elements. Atoms vary in size, weight, and the ways they interact with other atoms. Some
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  • Fall '19
  • Atom, Chemical bond

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