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2169-3536 (c) 2017 IEEE. Translations and content mining are permitted for academic research only. Personal use is also permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See for more information. This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2728623, IEEE Access IEEE ACCESS, VOL. XX, NO. XX, XXX 2017 1 Energy and Congestion-Aware Routing Metric for Smart Grid AMI Networks in Smart City Rehmat Ullah, Yasir Faheem, and Byung Seo Kim, Member, IEEE Abstract —Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is becom- ing a vital part of utility distribution networks, allowing the development of smart cities. AMI consists of smart electric, gas, and water meters, and the devices are very limited in terms of battery, processing power, and memory. The deployment and operational needs of energy-constrained network infrastructures in smart water and gas metering systems require the use of routing mechanisms that consider energy consumption, minimize energy use, and prolong network lifetime. An e ffi cient routing metric is needed for energy-constrained devices. In this article, we propose an energy- and congestion-aware routing metric (ECRM) for smart meter networks to be deployed in smart cities. The proposed metric is an adaptive parent node selection mechanism that considers the residual energy and queue utilization of neighboring nodes. Minimizing power consumption will enhance network lifetime. The proposed scheme was evaluated with Cooja Simulator 3.0 using random and grid topology. The simulation results show greater network performance in terms of average power consumption and packet delivery ratio (PDR). Index Terms —Low power and lossy networks, smart city, smart grid, 802.15.4, Advance metering infrastructure (AMI), IoT, 6LoWPAN. I. I ntroduction T HE smart grid [1] is a new concept related to the legacy power grid. In basic terms, it consists of a network that integrates communication technology with electric power infrastructures. This architecture can significantly improve the robustness and e ffi ciency of the generation, transmission, and distribution of electrical systems. A smart grid plays an important role in a smart city by modernizing power sys- tems, e ffi cient energy usage, and providing reliable integration of distributed and renewable energy resources. These roles make smart grids invaluable for the smart cities. AMI is a fundamental component of the smart grid, allowing two- way communication between electric, gas, and water meters and city utility companies [2]. A smart meter is the basic component of a smart grid AMI Networks. A smart city uses digital technology to improve the overall productivity , optimize the usage of resources like: Electricity, Gas and Water. The same idea of AMI can be extended to other common utilities like gas and water. In utilities of water
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  • Fall '19
  • routing protocol, IEEE Access

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