Chap 4 - Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes.docx - Chap 4 Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes 1 Cardiovascular Disease CVD includes heart disease

Chap 4 - Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes.docx - Chap 4...

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Chap 4 - Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes 1. Cardiovascular Disease - CVD includes heart disease, stroke, kidney disease - 2 of top 3 rank order causes of death - The one of leading cause of YLL (years of life lost) (e.g. life expectancy 80, died at age 50 YLL = 30) - Mortality rate has declined a lot since 1960 due to better health habits, technology and medicine - Prevalence rate has increased - Decline in mortality rate may have reversed 2. Cardiovascular system - Cardiovascular disease (CVD): disease of the heart ( cardio ) and blood vessels ( vascular ) - The cardiovascular system: Includes heart, and vessels connecting to lungs and kidneys - Arteries: blood vessels through which blood is pumped from the heart to body tissues. Blood returns to the heart via veins - Coronary arteries: arteries that supply the heart muscle itself with blood - Blood pumps from arteries → arterioles → capillaries - Blood returns to heart from venules → veins - Atherosclerosis: progressive narrowing of the arteries caused by deposit of fat and other material - Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries called coronary artery disease (CAD) or coronary heart disease (CHD) + Caused by high blood pressure, various chemicals such as nicotine , cholesterol and free radicals (highly chemically reactive molecules) + Starts with lesion (injury) of inner wall of artery + Cholesterol begins to deposit between layers in artery wall + Calcium and other deposits gradually replace the soft cholesterol, forming hard scar tissue + Arteries become narrowed due to accumulation of fatty deposits + Decreased blood supply due to progressive narrowing lumen + Clots can close off, break loose, or get stuck in smaller vessels “downstream” + Cells in heart cannot receive oxygen and die, this is a heart attack, in brain it is a stroke - Often lead to arteriosclerosis, hardening of artery walls, not reversible unlike atherosclerosis 3. Prevalence - We all have early stages of it
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  • Winter '14
  • N/A
  • Diabetes, Atherosclerosis

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