Chap 3- Infectious Disease.docx - Chapter 3 Infection Disease 1 Overview Most infectious diseases are communicable passed from person to person

Chap 3- Infectious Disease.docx - Chapter 3 Infection...

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Chapter 3: Infection Disease 1. Overview - Most infectious diseases are communicable - passed from person to person. - Incidence and mortality have dropped in developed countries. - Incidence : Number of new cases occurred per 100,000 people. - But infectious disease still exists: Malaria, Tuberculosis, Aids - Causes of death more prevalent in: Elderly, Infants, Those weakened by substance abuse or other diseases, Compromised immune system function - Infectious Disease Trend: Used to be leading cause of deaths in Canada and other developed countries (ex. US, UK, Taiwan) - Mortality rates down sharply in comparison to 100 years ago - This drop in infectious disease mortality resulted from both medical and social improvements (ex. Indoor plumbing, refrigeration, nutrition) - Infectious disease morbidity (sickness) is a leading cause of lost time from work/school in Canada - Still a major killer in (1) less developed countries and (2) infants, elderly, and weak 2. Mechanism of infectious disease - Terms: + Infection: invasion by and multiplication of micro-organism in body tissue, usually accompanied by local cellular injury + Latent or incubation period: time from entry of pathogen until the appearance of symptoms + Pathogen: infectious-disease causing agents (ex. Bacteria and viruses) - Mechanism + Each disease is caused by a specific pathogen or ‘germ’. + Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are all types of pathogens. + All pathogens have proteins called antigens on their surface of different shapes, the immune system responds to specific pathogen by their specific antigens 3. Protection against infection - Bacteria is everywhere - Not all microbes (micro-organisms) are harmful - We have layers of natural protection (Example - gut bacteria help us digest our food) - At birth we have very few gut microbes
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