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Introduction to Clinical Chemistry Ms. Winona Mei A. Reyes, RMT
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Clinical Chemistry “kline” An applied science when analyses are performed on body fluids or tissue specimens to provide important information for the diagnosis or treatment of disease Facilitate the correct performance of analytic procedures that yield accurate and precise information, aiding patient diagnosis and treatment
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Fundamental Concepts in Analytical Procedure Unit of Measurement Preparation and standardization of Solutions Chemical reagents and laboratory supplies
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Units of Measurement Laboratory Result Components: Actual test value Unit Systéme Internationale d’Unités (SI) Basic (e.g. length, mass, quantity of substance , etc.) Derived (e.g. velocity ) Supplemental (Accepted Non-SI)
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SI Conversions 000 #.000 Smaller to larger unit larger to smaller unit
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Reagents CHEMICALS WATER REF. MATERIALS
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Reagents: chemical rgt. 1. ANALYTICAL REAGENT (AR) For quali & quantitative analyses Essential for accuracy Uses: trace metal analysis & preparation of standard solutions 2. ULTRAPURE REAGENTS Had underwent purification steps Use: Chromatography (HPLC), atomic absorption and immunoassays
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3. CHEMICALLY PURE (CP) Purity is derived by measurement of melting/boiling point 4. UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA (USP) and NATIONAL FORMULARY (NF) Approved for human consumption but not applicable for lab analysis Use: drug manufacturing 5. TECHNICAL/COMMERCIAL GRADE Used primarily for manufacturing Should never be used in clinical laboratory testing Reagents: chemical rgt.
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Lot number Hazard and precautions Material safety data sheet (MSDS) Reagents: chemical rgt.
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Primary Standard A highly purified chemical that can be measured directly to produce a substance of exact known concentration and purity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) Chemical composition is certified, yet may not possess the purity equivalent of a primary standard. Used to verify calibration or accuracy/bias assessments Routine analytes, hormones, drugs, blood gases Secondary Standard A substance of lower purity whose concentration is determined by comparison with a primary standard Reagents: Ref. Materials
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Most frequently used reagent in the laboratory Distilled water: purified to remove almost all organic materials Deionized water: some or all ions removed, though organic material may still be present; neither pure or sterile RO water: water is pressurized through a semipermeable membrane producing filtrated water Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration: removes particulate matter, microorganisms, pyrogens, and endotoxins UV light, sterilization, or ozone treatment: destroys bacteria but may leave residual products Reagent grade water Reagents: water
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Parameters to monitor Purity of Water Microbiological count pH Hardness Resisitivity Chemical Oxygen Demand Metal detection Silicate, chlorine, ammonia, nitrate, iron, phosphate, sodium, CO2
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Grades of Water (accdg. to
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  • Fall '19
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