CLINEc155(final).docx - Running head ASTHMA 1 Foundations...

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Running head: ASTHMA 1 Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing Practice Asthma Christina Cline
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ASTHMA 2 Investigated Disease Process Breathing is an essential part of life. Unfortunately for some, breathing with ease is a luxury, and it can be difficult if they are having an asthma attack. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are approximately 18.4 million adults that have asthma (CDC, 2017). For these people, it may be a daily struggle to participate in normal, everyday, activities due to asthma which makes it harder for the person to breathe. Asthma is an obstructive pulmonary disease, and the classic sign is wheezing (McCance, K. & Huether, S., 2014). Asthma can affect men and women of any age and unfortunately does not have a cure. Currently, management of the disease is the only way to properly live with asthma. There are few different types of asthma which include, childhood asthma, occupational asthma, and exercise- induced asthma (AAAAI, 2017). Each of these ends with the same result which is difficulty breathing when the condition is exacerbated. Pathophysiology Asthma is an inflammatory disorder that is chronic and causes inflammation of the bronchial mucosa. This causes constriction of the airways, bronchial hyper responsiveness, and some airflow obstruction, which is reversible. There are genetic links with about 100 identified genes that are linked to the condition (McCance, K. & Huether, S., 2014). When epithelial cells in the airway are exposed to antigens, there can be adaptive and innate immune responses in a person that is sensitive. Cellular elements that can contribute to the persistent inflammation and hyper responsiveness include macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and many more. During an attack, there is an immediate response which can be called the early asthmatic response, as well as the late response which can take up to eight hours to begin after the early response (McCance, K. & Huether, S., 2014). Bronchospasms, or muscle contractions that end up narrowing the airway, is the problem of asthma. Since there is smooth muscle that goes from the trachea to the bronchioles and wraps around in a spiral pattern, contraction due to a trigger can occlude the airway and make one unable to breathe. Edema, excessive mucus, and inflammation cause bronchoconstriction and triggers such as pet dander and smoke can precipitate the constriction. Airway hyper responsiveness can also occur (Frandsen, G., Pennington, S., & Abrams, A., 2014).
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ASTHMA 3 Causative stimuli that are exposed to lung tissue causes mast cells to cause inflammation and bronchoconstriction due to the substances that are released by the mast cells. Mast cells are very abundant in areas surrounding the lungs and when exposed to allergens, chemical mediators, such as histamine and prostaglandins, are synthesized and released. These chemicals act on the smooth muscle in the airway and causes constriction, fluid leakage, and increased capillary permeability, as well as mucous in the airway epithelium (Frandsen, G., Pennington, S., & Abrams, A., 2014).
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