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University of Alberta Entrained Flow Gasification of Oil Sand Coke by Farshid Vejahati A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Chemical Engineering Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering ©Farshid Vejahati Spring 2012 Edmonton, Alberta Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
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This work is dedicated to my wife, Mehrdokht and my parents, for their unconditional support and love.
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Abstract The effect of blending woody biomass material with fluid coke and coal on the co-pyrolysis process was investigated in an entrained flow gasifier. The SEM results showed a particle size decrease and shape change from needle to spherical as the temperature was increased. Agglomeration between particles occurred above 1250°C due to the low ash fusion temperature of biomass. The results were verified by particle size distribution analysis. Reactivity of pyrolyzed blended and pure fuels decreased with increasing temperature. No agglomeration was found for blends of coal and coke. Pyrolysis at high temperatures also showed a significant surface area development for coke. The combined effects of the steam and oxygen concentrations and coal/coke blending ratio were investigated in gasification of fluid coke with sub- bituminous and lignite coals using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Six response variables were considered: H 2 , CO and syngas production, H 2 /CO ratio, gasification efficiency, and carbon conversion. Experiments were conducted over a temperature range of 1000-1400°C, using steam and oxygen to carbon weight ratios of (0.9-4.3) and (0-0.4), respectively. Using RSM, the interactions between different factors were determined. The response variable correlations were employed to determine the experimental conditions under which the H 2 production was maximized. The intrinsic rates for Char-O 2 , char-CO 2 , and char-H 2 O reactions were developed for coke. The validity of thermogravimetric determination of kinetics was discussed in depth. Four surface area measurement techniques were used to
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normalize the specific reaction rate: N 2 -BET, GCMC-NLDFT and DR models, and active surface area measured by CO 2 chemisorption. The objective was to find the specific surface area which gives the best reduction in the variability of reaction rate ( ) using the regressor variable ( ) . Overall ASA was found to
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