Chapter 16 - Acids and Bases.pptx - Acids and Bases Chapter...

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Acids and Bases Chapter 16
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Chapter Goals Recall some acid-base information Look at different definition of acid-base Arrhenius Acid-Base Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Lewis Acid-Base Explain acid-strength and acid dissociation constant ( K a ) Autoionization of water and pH Calculation of pH, pOH, pKa, and their relationship Calculation of pH of monoprotic and polyprotic acids
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Sour taste Ability to dissolve many metals Ability to neutralize bases Change blue litmus paper to red Example: HCl, H 2 SO 4 , CH 3 COOH Taste bitter Alkaloid is a plant product that is alkaline in nature. Often poisonous Feels slippery to the touch Ability to neutralize acids Change red litmus paper to blue Example: NaOH, NH 3 , NaHCO 3 General Properties of Acids and Bases
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Hydronium Ion: H 3 O + The H + ions (protons) produced by the acid are so reactive they cannot exist in water. Instead, they react with water molecules to produce complex ions with the formula H(H 2 O) n + . hydronium ion , H 3 O + ,used interchangeably with H + . H + + H 2 O → H 3 O +
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Definitions of Acids and Bases Arrhenius definition Acids are substances that when dissolved in water produce a hydronium, H 3 O + (hydrogen ion H + ). i.e. increases the concentration of H 3 O + Examples: HCl, H 2 SO 4 , CH 3 COOH Bases are substances that when dissolved in water produce a hydroxide ion, OH . i.e. increases the concentration of OH - Examples: NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 etc
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Brønsted–Lowry definition (based on reactions in water) Acids are substances that when dissolved in water donate protons (hydrogen ions, H + ). Bases are substances that accept protons (hydrogen ions, H + ). A base will accept a proton and become a conjugate acid. An acid will donate a proton and become a conjugate base.
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Lewis definition (most expansive and based on electron donors and acceptors) Acids are substances that accept or need an electron pair. It form a covalent bond by accepting an electron pair from another species. Bases are substances that donate an electron pair to another substance. It form a covalent bond by donating an electron pair to another species. Example: AlCl 3 + Cl -
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In Class Activity In each reaction, identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid, Bronsted-Lowry Base, the conjugate acid and conjugate base a. H 2 CO 3 (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) CO 3 2- (aq) + 2H 3 O + (aq) b. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) HSO 4 - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) c. C 5 H 5 N(aq) + H 2 O(l) C 5 H 5 NH + (aq) + OH - (aq)
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Acid Strength and Molecular Structure of Acids Binary acids (H—Y) have acidic hydrogens attached to a nonmetal atom. The more polarized the bond ( δ+ H—X δ− ), the more acidic the bond. The stronger the H—X bond, the weaker the acid. Oxyacids (H—O—Y) have acidic hydrogen atoms attached to an oxygen atom.
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  • Fall '19
  • pH, Lewis Bases

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