(Ab)order_190909153(15)-2.doc - Extremism in the U.K 1 EXTREMISM IN THE UNITED KINGDOM Student’s Name Course Professor’s Name University City(State

(Ab)order_190909153(15)-2.doc - Extremism in the U.K 1...

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Extremism in the U.K. 1 EXTREMISM IN THE UNITED KINGDOM Student’s Name Course Professor’s Name University City (State) Date
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Extremism in the U.K. 2 Extremism in the United Kingdom CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Background of the Study It is undisputed that terrorism and suicide bombing are huge concerns in the contemporary global society (Briggs 2010). As such, they have attracted the attention of many scholars among them psychologists, psychiatrists and security professionals who are working hard to develop effective, reliable and long term counter-terrorism measures. Eatwell (2006) defined radicalization as a situation whereby a person or group of people adopt increasingly extreme social, political, or religious ideals that either reject the status quo or undermine the ideals and expressions of freedom of choice. In the same vein, Rehman (2007) defined extremism as vocal and/or active opposition to fundamental values like democracy, individual liberty, the rule of law, respect for multiculturalism, and tolerance of religious diversity, which collectively define the social and political pillars of a given society. Extremism and/or radicalization have gained prevalence in the United Kingdom over the past few decades. The situation is even worse worldwide with many countries among them the United States, Nigeria, Somalia, Kenya, and France experiencing serious extremist attacks in the recent past (Kluch and Vaux 2017). This assertion was affirmed by Huq, Tyler and Schulhofer (2011) in a study which showed that since the 9/11 terrorism attack in the United States, terrorism-related fatalities have increased almost five fold. Essentially, terror groups including Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), Boko Haram (in Nigeria), the Taliban (in Afghanistan), Al- Shabaab (in Somalia and Kenya), and Al-Qaida (in various parts of the world) have gradually changed tact from the traditional terrorism attacks to extremist attacks which are widespread in the contemporary global society (Eatwell 2010).
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Extremism in the U.K. 3 Evidently, there has been significant increase in political, religious, and ideological violence worldwide. Statistics from the global terrorism database prove the same by showing that the number of terror-related fatalities worldwide has steadily increased from 3,361 in 2000, to 11,133 in 2012 and to 17,958 in 2013 (Berkebile 2017, p. 13). Most of these fatalities have been as a result terror attacks in the form of suicide bombing by extremists that have been executed by individuals and/or groups of people who are affiliated to different terror groups especially ISIS and Al-Qaida. Furthermore, Thomas (2010, p. 445) stated that violent extremism is a well- recognized concern in U.K. today, a situation that has been propagated by increase in cases of radicalization among young British people. Similar to other major cities of the world like Paris (in France) and New York (in the U.S.), London has been a target for terrorism attacks with the most notable incident being in July 2005 which left 52 people dead and hundreds injured (Salerno 2017, p. 87). Investigation on the London 2005 attack showed that the terrorists who
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