elaeldfwchapter8 (2).pdf - Chapter Eight English Language Arts English Language Development Framework Adopted by the California State Board of Education

elaeldfwchapter8 (2).pdf - Chapter Eight English Language...

This preview shows page 1 out of 61 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter Eight English Language Arts/ English Language Development Framework Adopted by the California State Board of Education, July 2014 Published by the California Department of Education Sacramento, CA Page Chapter at a Glance 822 Purposes of Assessment 825 Assessment Cycles 829 Short-Cycle Formative Assessment 835 Medium-Cycle Assessment 835 End-of-Unit Assessments 836 Interim or Benchmark Assessments 838 Assessing ELD Using Medium-Cycle Evidence 839 Long-Cycle Assessment 841 Ensuring Accessibility for ELs on Long-Cycle Assessments 842 Additional Methods of Medium- and Long-Cycle Assessment 842 Rubrics 844 Portfolios 845 846 Student Involvement Feedback 847 Teacher Feedback 848 Peer Feedback 849 Self-Assessment 850 Assessment of ELD Progress 851 Assessing ELD Progress in Writing 856 Assessing ELD Progress in Oral Language 858 Assessment for Intervention 859 Universal Screening (Medium Cycle) 859 Diagnostic Assessment (Medium Cycle) 860 Progress Monitoring (Short or Medium Cycle) 861 Mandated California Assessments 864 Computer Adaptive Tests 864 Performance Tasks 865 Assessments for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities 865 Biliteracy Assessment 866 English Language Proficiency Assessment 867 Technical Quality of Assessments 868 Elements of Technical Quality Assessment Chapter 8 Assessment Chapter 8 | 819 Page Chapter at a Glance (cont.) 868 Validity 868 Reliability 869 Freedom from Bias 870 Technical Quality and Formative Assessment 872 Conclusion 873 Works Cited S tudent achievement of the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards depends on educators’ skilled use of assessment information. With the institution of these standards, the landscape of assessment and accountability in California is experiencing a dramatic shift. Not only do the standards present new goals for California educators as depicted in the outer ring of figure 8.1, but the implementation of the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) system represents a major shift in the intent of statewide assessment: “It is the intent of the Legislature . . . to provide a system of assessments of pupils that has the primary purposes of assisting teachers, administrators, and pupils and their parents; improving teaching and learning; and promoting high-quality teaching and learning using a variety of assessment approaches and types” (Education Code 60602.5[a]). This shift is consonant with major emphases in California’s standards for college and career readiness: a renewed focus on purposeful and deeper learning for students and their teachers, strong collaboration and partnerships at all levels of education, and a culture of continuous growth based on reflective practice. Figure 8.1. Circles of Implementation of ELA/Literacy and ELD Instruction 820 | Chapter 8 Assessment This chapter describes the scope of assessment and its skilled use to support student achievement of the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards—and ultimately the overarching goals of ELA/literacy and ELD instruction: students develop the readiness for college, careers, and civic life; attain the capacities of literate individuals; become broadly literate; and acquire the skills necessary for living and learning in the 21st century. (See outer ring of figure 8.1.) Both sets of standards, as discussed throughout Both sets of standards, this ELA/ELD Framework, constitute shifts that have significant as discussed throughout implications for assessment. this ELA/ELD Framework, From the outset, the coherent structure of the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and CA ELD Standards from kindergarten through constitute shifts that have grade twelve lends itself to effective assessment practices. significant implications for Mapping the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy within each strand assessment. (Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening1, and Language) backwards from the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Anchor Standards, makes clear what students are to know and be able to do at each grade and also demonstrates the relatively small number of broad competencies to assess as students move from novice to expert. Similarly, the organization of the three parts of the CA ELD Standards (“Interacting in Meaningful Ways,” “Learning About How English Works,” “Using Foundational Literacy Skills”) helps teachers make important instruction and assessment decisions for ELs by grade level and English language proficiency level. Meaningfully, both sets of standards encompass the full spectrum of language and literacy competencies from kindergarten through grade twelve, thereby providing many opportunities for students to apply and transfer skills from the earliest grades. The standards encourage educators to think broadly and plan instruction comprehensively. “[E]ach standard need not be a separate focus for instruction and assessment. Often, several standards can be addressed by a single, rich task [, so that] students can develop mutually reinforcing skills and exhibit mastery . . . across a range of texts [and tasks]” (CDE 2013a, 4–5). Importantly, the standards recommend that Importantly, the standards language and literacy learning be connected with recommend that language and the academic disciplines from the earliest grades literacy learning be connected with onward. Assessment, then, should enable educators the academic disciplines from the to determine a student’s trajectory in developing proficiency in language and literacy within and across earliest grades onward. Assessment, the years and the disciplines. then, should enable educators to The chapter begins with an explanation of the determine a student’s trajectory in different purposes of assessment—both for and of developing proficiency in language learning. Cycles of assessment—short, medium, and and literacy within and across the long—are then discussed, including the types and years and the disciplines. purposes of assessment within each time frame and the decisions that each assessment type can inform. Snapshots of teacher use of assessment are included throughout the discussion of assessment cycles. The role of student involvement and feedback in assessment is highlighted, followed by guidance for assessment of ELD progress and descriptions of assessment for intervention. In addition, the chapter 1 As noted throughout this framework, speaking and listening should be broadly interpreted. Speaking and listening should include deaf and hard of hearing students using American Sign Language (ASL) as they primary language. Students who are deaf and hard of hearing who do not use ASL as their primary language but use amplification, residual hearing, listening and spoken language, cued speech and sign supported speech, access the general education curriculum with varying modes of communication. Assessment Chapter 8 | 821 presents a brief overview of mandated statewide assessments and concludes with a consideration of the technical quality of assessments to ensure that assessments yield accurate information for their intended purposes. This chapter can be used in several ways. As a source of professional learning for teachers and school and district leaders, the chapter plays a critical role in strengthening educators’ assessment literacy—their knowledge and understanding of assessment practices and appropriate uses of assessment evidence to shape powerful instruction. The chapter provides teachers and leaders a structure for examining the types of assessment practices and sources of assessment evidence currently in use in schools and for proposing needed additions and adjustments. This chapter features formative assessment as a process and recommends that it be the focus of in depth professional learning and support, including dialogue with peers, classroom practice of new approaches, and coaching. Purposes of Assessment Assessments are designed and used for different purposes. For example, an annual assessment designed to assess how well students have met a specific standard (e.g., CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy RI.4.8: Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text) does just that: It indicates whether students have met a specific standard. However, this assessment does not diagnose a particular reading difficulty a fourth-grade student is experiencing in achieving the standard. Nor does it provide substantive insights into how a student is beginning to understand what constitutes evidence in a specific text. In the use of any assessment, a central question is, “Is this assessment being Assessment has two used for the purpose for which it is intended?” fundamental purposes: One is Assessment has two fundamental purposes: One is to provide information about to provide information about student learning minute-bystudent learning minuteminute, day-to-day, and week-to-week so that teachers by-minute, day-to-day, and continuously adapt instruction to meet students’ specific needs and secure progress. This type of assessment is week-to-week so that teachers intended to assist learning and is often referred to as continuously adapt instruction formative assessment or assessment for learning. Formative to meet students’ specific needs assessment occurs in real time—during instruction—while and secure progress. student learning is underway (Allal 2010; Black and Wiliam 1998; Bell and Cowie 2000; Heritage 2010; Shepard 2000, 2005b). For example, a third-grade teacher working with small groups of students on distinguishing their point of view from a particular author’s viewpoint gains insights into students’ developing skills through the use of strategic questions and uses students’ responses to adjust instruction. Although discussed further in the next section, formative assessment is briefly defined in figure 8.2. 822 | Chapter 8 Assessment Figure 8.2. What is Formative Assessment? What is formative assessment? Formative assessment is a process teachers and students use during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching moves and learning tactics. It is not a tool or an event, nor a bank of test items or performance tasks. Well-supported by research evidence, it improves students’ learning in time to achieve intended instructional outcomes. Key features include: 1. Clear lesson-learning goals and success criteria, so students understand what they are aiming for; 2. Evidence of learning gathered during lessons to determine where students are relative to goals; 3. A pedagogical response to evidence, including descriptive feedback, that supports learning by helping students answer: Where am I going? Where am I now? What are my next steps? 4. Peer- and self-assessment to strengthen students’ learning, efficacy, confidence, and autonomy; 5. A collaborative classroom culture where students and teachers are partners in learning. Source Linquanti, Robert. 2014. Supporting Formative Assessment for Deeper Learning: A Primer for Policymakers. Paper prepared for the Formative Assessment for Students and Teachers/State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards, 2. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. A second purpose of assessment is to provide information on students’ current levels of achievement after a period of learning has occurred. Such assessments—which may be classroombased, districtwide, or statewide—serve a summative purpose and are sometimes referred to as assessments of learning. They help determine whether students have attained a certain level of competency after a more or less extended period of instruction and learning; such as the end of a unit which may last several weeks, the end of a quarter, or annually (National Research Council [NRC] 2001). A second purpose of assessment Inferences made by teachers from the results of these is to provide information on assessments are used to make decisions about student placement, instruction, curricula, interventions, and to students’ current levels of assign grades. For example, the current state assessment achievement after a period of of English language proficiency, the California English learning has occurred. Such Language Development Test (CELDT), measures an EL’s assessments—which may be annual progress in attaining proficiency. School districts classroom-based, districtwide, or use the results of the annual assessment to make decisions statewide—serve a summative about the ongoing instructional placement or possible reclassification of ELs. The English Language Proficiency purpose and are sometimes Assessments for California (ELPAC) are scheduled replace referred to as assessments of the CELDT in 2017 or 2018. (See the section on English learning. language proficiency assessments in this chapter.) As part of a balanced and comprehensive assessment system, assessment for learning and assessment of learning are both important. While assessment(s) of learning usually involve a tool or event after a period of learning, assessment for learning is a process. Evidence-gathering strategies that are truly formative yield information that is timely and speci ic enough to assist learning as it occurs. Figure 8.3 presents the key dimensions of assessment for and of learning and highlights their differences. Assessment Chapter 8 | 823 Figure 8.3. Key Dimensions of Assessment for Learning and Assessment of Learning Assessment: A Process of Reasoning from Evidence to Inform Teaching and Learning Dimension Assessment for learning Assessment of learning Method Formative Assessment Process Classroom Summative/ Interim/Benchmark Assessment* Large-Scale Summative Assessment Main Purpose Assist immediate learning (in the moment) Measure student achievement or progress (may also inform future teaching and learning) Evaluate educational programs and measure multi-year progress Focus Teaching and learning Measurement Accountability Locus Individual student and classroom learning Grade level/ department/school School/district/state Priority for Instruction High Medium Low Proximity to Learning In-the-midst Middle-distance Distant Timing During immediate instruction or sequence of lessons After teaching-learning cycle → between units/ periodic End of year/course Participants Teacher and Student (T-S/S-S/Self) Student (may later include T-S in conference) Student *Assessment of learning may also be used for formative purposes if assessment evidence is used to shape future instruction. Such assessments include weekly quizzes; curriculum embedded within-unit tasks (e.g., oral presentations, writing projects, portfolios) or end-of-unit/culminating tasks; monthly writing samples, reading assessments (e.g., oral reading observation, periodic foundational skills assessments); and student reflections/self-assessments (e.g., rubric self-rating). Source Adapted from Linquanti, Robert. 2014. Supporting Formative Assessment for Deeper Learning: A Primer for Policymakers. Paper prepared for the Formative Assessment for Students and Teachers/State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards, 2. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. 824 | Chapter 8 Assessment As figure 8.3 illustrates, assessment for learning—comprising key practices of the formative assessment process—occurs during instruction (or while learning is happening) and addresses students’ immediate learning needs. Intertwined and inseparable from teachers’ pedagogical practice, formative assessment is a high priority. It is especially important as teachers assess and guide their students to develop and apply a broad range of language and literacy skills. The special note (*) in figure 8.3 indicates that some assessments of learning can be used for formative purposes. In other words, they can be used to inform future teaching and learning and not simply to report on achievement or Intertwined and inseparable progress. This is only the case if the evidence-gathering from teachers’ pedagogical tool addresses both the focus of instruction of the previous practice, formative assessment unit and immediate future learning goals. is a high priority. It is especially School leaders and professional learning providers important as teachers assess consider the support that educators require to understand and implement the formative assessment process fully, and guide their students to as well as to use interim/benchmark and summative develop and apply a broad assessments effectively. Importantly, educators (classroom range of language and literacy teachers, specialists, administrators, and others) interpret skills. assessment evidence in order to plan instruction and respond pedagogically to emerging student learning. Collaborative professional environments, such as communities of practice, are the nexus of learning, and the work teachers do relative to assessment evidence is part of an ongoing cycle of inquiry. (See chapter 11 in this ELA/ELD Framework.) To optimize instructional decision making relative to the CA CCSS for ELA/Literacy and the CA ELD Standards, teachers and leaders make full use of assessment for both formative and summative purposes. Assessment Cycles One way to consider assessment for different purposes is to conceptualize assessment as operating in different cycles: short, medium, and long (Wiliam 2006). Figure 8.4 presents a range of assessments within a comprehensive assessment system. Those assessments that are more proximate to student learning (i.e., minute-by-minute, daily, weekly) operate in a short cycle because they address a short period of teaching and learning. Short-cycle assessment serves a formative purpose because its intended use is to inform immediate teaching and learning. Assessments administered at the end of the year operate in a long cycle because they cover a much longer period of learning. Long-cycle assessments are primarily used for summative purposes. Assessment Chapter 8 | 825 Figure 8.4. Assessment Cycles by Purpose Source Adapted from Herman, Joan L., and Margaret Heritage. 2007. Moving from Piecemeal to Effective Formative Assessment Practice: Moving Pictures on the Road to Student Learning. Paper presented at the Council of Chief State School Officers Assessment Conference, Nashville, TN. Occupying a middle position between short-cycle (formative) and annual (summative) assessment is interim/benchmark assessment: “assessments administered periodically throughout the school year, at specified times during a curriculum sequence to evaluate students’ knowledge and skills relative to an explicit set of longer-term learning goals” (Herman, Osmundson, and Dietel 2010, 1). In figure 8.4, classroom summative assessments are referred to as unit assessments (although they could also occur in shorter time frames), and interim/benchmark assessments are referred to as quarterly assessments. Such periodic assessments operate in a medium cycle because they address longerterm goals than those assessments more proximate to student learning but not as long-term as annual assessments. Classroom summative or interim/benchmark assessments are generally used for summative purposes—evaluating what has been learned—although they may be used for formative purposes if they inform decisions that teachers and instructional leaders make within the school year regarding curricula, instructional programs and practices, and professional learning to improve future student learning. However, classroom summative or interim/benchmark assessments are distinct from the formative assessment process because, by their design and intended use, they do not inform immediate teaching and learning. Unit assessments primarily serve a summative function but can serve a formative purpose if the teacher can act on the assessment information to support improved learning in a future unit. Progress-monitoring assessments can be short, medium, or long cycle, depending on whether they are administered after a shorter or longer period of instruct...
View Full Document

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask 0 bonus questions You can ask 0 questions (0 expire soon) You can ask 0 questions (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes