2485_sejda-DYJ.pdf - Chapter 12 References NPS(National Park Service 2016 Natural Resources Chapter 4 in Coastal Adapatation Strategies Handbook

2485_sejda-DYJ.pdf - Chapter 12 References NPS(National...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12 References NPS (National Park Service). 2016. Natural Resources. Chapter 4 in: Coastal Adapatation Strategies Handbook. National Park Service: Washington, D.C. Available at: . (Accessed: March 2, 2018). Nayak, S., S.C. Sheridan, Y. Lu, N. Graber, M. Primeau, C.J. Rafferty, and S. Hwang. 2017. Surveying Local Health Departments and County Emergency Management Offices on Cooling Centers as a Heat Adaptation Resource in New York State. Journal of Community Health 42(1):43–50. doi: 10.1007/s10900-016-0224-4. Nealer, R. and T.P. Hendrickson. 2015. Review of recent lifecycle assessments of energy and greenhouse gas emissions for electric vehicles. Current Sustainable/Renewable Energy Reports 2(3):66–73. doi: 10.1007/s40518-015-0033-x. Available at: . (Accessed: March 2, 2018). Nelson, G.C., D. van der Mensbrugghe, H. Ahammad, E. Blanc, K. Calvin, T. Hasegawa, P. Havlik, E. Heyhoe, P. Kyle, H. Lotze-Campen, M. von Lampe, D. Mason d'Croz, H. van Meijl, C. Müller, J. Reilly, R. Robertson, R. Sands, C. Schmitz, A. Tabeau, K. Takahashi, H. Valin, and D. Willenbockeland. 2014. Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree. Agricultural Economics 45(1):85–101. doi:10.1111/agec.12091. NETL (National Energy Technology Laboratory). 2011. Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America’s Energy Challenges. DOE/NETL. March 2011. U.S. Department of Energy. Available at: . NETL. 2015. Approaches to Developing a Cradle‐to‐Grave Life Cycle Analysis of Conventional Petroleum Fuels Produced in the U.S. with an Outlook to 2040. DOE/NETL-2016/1749. October 2015. U.S. Department of Energy. Available at: . (Accessed: March 2, 2018). NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration). 2009. NHTSA Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program Development: Phase 2—Effects of Tire Rolling Resistance Levels on Traction, Treadwear, and Vehicle Fuel Economy. DOT HS 811 154. Available at: (VRTC)/c a/Tires/811154.pdf. (Accessed: March 2, 2018). NHTSA. 2010. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Passenger Cars and Light Trucks, Model Years 2012–2016. Washington, D.C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. NHTSA. 2011. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Medium and Heavy‐Duty Fuel Efficiency Improvement Program. Washington, D.C., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. NHTSA. 2012. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Passenger Cars and Light Trucks, Model Years 2017–2025, Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0056. July 2012. Available at: Using peer groups to convert hospital value incentive program points to rewards and penalties (cont.) beneficiaries. We withhold 2 percent of each of the hospital’s total base IPPS payments. We also add 1 percent of IPPS payments to the withhold amount to create an enhanced pool of dollars from a portion of the current-law update. Since Hospital A has fewer discharges, its contribution to the pool of dollars is less than Hospital B’s contribution. The total HVIP enhanced bonus pool to be redistributed for this peer group is equivalent to 3 percent of combined payments to the two hospitals ($1.95 million). The payment multiplier is calculated, which, after conversion to dollars, results in recovering the entire $1.95 million TABLE 15–5 withhold dollars. For Peer Group 1, each HVIP point earns a 0.39 percent payment adjustment. Thus, Hospital A earns a payment adjustment of 3.90 percent, which is equal to $195,000 (or a reward of $95,000 greater than the hospitals withhold) (Step 5). Hospital B earns a payment adjustment of 2.93 percent, which is equal to $1,755,000. Both hospitals receive a reward, but relative to the 2 percent withhold, Hospital A has a greater positive payment adjustment because its performance is higher. The entire $1.95 million pool is distributed to the hospitals in the peer group. ■ Example of converting HVIP points to payment adjustments for a peer group’s hospitals Peer Group 1 Hospital A (500 discharges) HVIP points (Step 1) Total base IPPS payments 2 percent withhold of IPPS payments 1 percent of IPPS payments from current-law payment update Total HVIP enhanced pool of dollars for peer group (3 percent of IPPS payments) (Step 3) Payment multiplier (Step 4) Hospital HVIP-based adjustment (Step 5) Reward or penalty relative to 2 percent withhold Note: Hospital B (5,000 discharges) 10.0 7.5 $5,000,000 $60,000,000 $100,000 $1,200,000 $50,000 $600,000 $1,950,000 0.39% adjustment per point 3.90% ($195,000) 2.93% ($1,755,000) +1.90% (+$95,000) +0.93% (+$555,000) HVIP (hospital value incentive program), IPPS (inpatient prospective payment system). This example assumes the peer group has two hospitals (Step 2). We also compared HVIP payments for other categories of hospitals with existing quality programs. Under the HVIP, large urban hospitals and major teaching hospitals would, on average, receive rewards rather than the penalties they receive under the current programs. For example, major teaching hospitals have a –1.16 percentage point penalty under current programs; under the HVIP, with a 3 percent pool of dollars or a 6 percent pool of dollars, teaching hospitals would receive positive adjustments of a 0.84 percentage point reward or a 0.92 percentage point reward, respectively (Table 15-6, p. 445). In addition, under the HVIP, rural and nonteaching hospitals on average would receive higher rewards than large urban and major teaching hospitals. For example, rural hospitals, which currently have a –0.52 percentage point payment adjustment on average, would have a 1.19 percentage point positive adjustment under the HVIP based on a 3 Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy  |  March 2019 443 Chapter 12 References Economy/Environmental-Impact-Statement-for-CAFE-Standards,-2017%E2%80%932025. (Accessed: May 31, 2018). NHTSA. 2016a. Draft Technical Assessment Report: Midterm Evaluation of Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for Model Years 2022-2025 (July 18, 2016). Available at: (Accessed: Jan. 29, 2018). NHTSA. 2016b. Final Rule, Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. 49 CFR Part 571 and 585. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Available at: . (Accessed: April 17, 2018). NHTSA. 2016c. Phase 2 Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Available at: . (Accessed: February 26, 2018). NHTSA and EPA. 2011. 2017–2025 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards: Supplemental Notice of Intent. Available at: . (Accessed: June 17, 2015). Nicholls, R. J., P. P. Wong, V. R. Burkett, J. O. Codignotto, J. E. Hay, R. F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden, and C. D. Woodroffe. 2007. Coastal Systems and Low-Lying Areas. Pgs. 315–356. in: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson (Eds.)]. [IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (Eds.)]. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, New York, USA. 976 pp. Available at: . (Accessed: March 3, 2018). Nicholls, R.J. and A. Cazenave. 2010. Sea-level Rise and its Impact on Coastal Zones. Science 328(5985):1517–1520. doi:10.1126/science.1185782. NIH (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 2010. A Human Health Perspective on Climate Change. A Report Outlining the Research Needs on the Human Health Effects of Climate Change. The Interagency Working Group on Climate Change and Health. Available online: _report_508.pdf. (Accessed: April 9, 2018). NIH 2010. citing Gregory, P.J., S.N. Johnson, A.C. Newton, and J.S.I. Ingram. 2009. Integrating Pests and Pathogens into the Climate Change/Food Security Debate. Journal of Experimental Botany 60(10):2827-2838. doi:10.1093/jxb/erp080. Available online: . (Accessed: April 9, 2018). Nitta, S. and Y. Moriguchi. 2011. New Methodology of Life Cycle Assessment for Clean Energy Vehicle and New Car Model. SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0851. SAE International. doi:10.4271/2011-010851. 12-87 FIGURE 1FIGURE 5– 2 Compared with existing quality payment programs, the potential Cumulative change.... HVIP makes payment adjustments more equitable for hospitals grouped by share of fully dual-eligible beneficiaries 1-X Average payment adjustment (in percent) 1.5 Average payment adjustment under potential HVIP model (3 percent pool) Average payment adjustment under potential HVIP model (6 percent pool) 1.0 0.5 0.0 –0.5 –1.0 –1.5 Note: Average payment adjustments under existing programs Peer Group 1 (lowest share of fully dual-eligible beneficiaries) Peer Group 3 Peer Group 6 Peer Group 10 (highest share of fully dual-eligible beneficiaries) HVIP (hospital value incentive program). The existing quality programs include the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP), Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HACRP), and Hospital Value-based Purchasing (VBP) Program. The HRRP and HACRP are penalties, and the VBP Program is budget neutral. The average HVIP adjustment is the sum of each hospital’s HVIP adjustment after the withhold divided by the sum of each hospital’s base payment. The HVIP is budget neutral. Peer groups are assigned based on the share of the hospital’s Medicare patients who are fully eligible for Medicare and Medicaid benefits for a majority of the year. Fully dual-eligible beneficiaries qualify for the full range of Medicaid benefits. Source: MedPAC analysis of Medicare fee-for-service hospital quality data, 2014–2017. percent pool and a 1.39 percent positive adjustment with a 6 percent HVIP pool of dollars. Relatively efficient providers (as defined by the Commission) also receive more of a reward from the HVIP compared with other hospitals. Under the HVIP model with a 3 percent pool of dollars, efficient hospitals would receive, on average, a 1.23 percentage point reward, while less efficient hospitals would receive a 0.96 percentage point reward. There is more of a difference between the HVIP payment adjustments when using a 6 percent pool of dollars. Efficient providers would receive a 1.46 percentage point reward, while less efficient hospitals would receive, on average, a 0.92 percent payment adjustment. As seen with the peer grouping, compared with the existing quality payment programs, the HVIP approach payment adjustments more equitable Note: Note makes and Source are in InDesign. Source: 444 R e d e s i g n i n g M e d i c a r e ’s h o s p i t a l q u a l i t y i n c e n t i v e p r o g r a m s among hospitals that serve different populations and hospitals deemed more efficient than others. Recommendation to redesign hospital quality incentive programs Consistent with the Commission’s principles, the HVIP links payment to quality of care to reward providers for offering high-quality care to beneficiaries. A single quality payment program for hospitals, such as our HVIP model, would be simpler to administer and would produce more equitable results compared with the existing quality payment programs. The HVIP, as a single program, would eliminate the complexity of overlapping program requirements, would focus on outcomes, and would ...
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