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:tl/s[t pknlJw k/LIf0f cjwf/0ff / ljsf; zfflGt/fd bfxfn != kl/ro dfgj hLjgsf k|To]s lqmofksnfkx?df k/LIf0fsf] s'g} g s'g} ?kdf k|efj /x]sf] x'G5 . s'g}klg sfo{ jf lqmofsnfk k"/f ul/;s]kl5 To;af6 s] s:tf] kl/0ffd k|fKt eof], nIo cg'?k sfo{ x'g ;Sof] jf ;s]g / ;du|df pQm sfo{ s:tf] x'g ;Sof] eGg] ;DaGwdf ;fdfGo ?kaf6 hfFra'em ug]{ k|j[lQ g} k/LIf0f xf] o;k|sf/ k/LIf0f dfgj hLjgsf k|To]s Jojxf/x? lqmofsnfkx? tyf kIfx?;Fu hf]l8Psf] cfwf/e"t k|lqmof xf] . b}lgs hLjgsf lqmofsnfkx?b]lv z}lIfs If]qsf lqmofsnfkx? / z}lIfs pknlAw ;Dd dfkg ug{ u/LIf0fnfO{ pkof]u ul/G5 . ljBfyL{x?nfO{ z}lIfs ; +:yfdf k|j]z u/fpg'eGbf klxnf p;sf] k"j{ Ifdtf s:tf] 5 < z}lIfs sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf qmddf ljBfyL{x?n] cfzftLt l;sfO pknlAw xfl;n ul//x]sf 5g\ jf 5}gg\ < z}Ifl0fs sfo{ s] s;/L cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 < lzIf0f ljlw s] slt k|efjsf/L 5 < ljBfyL{x? nfO{ s'g} vf; k|sf/sf] l;sfO xfl;n ug{ s] s:tf ;d:ofx? 5g\ < cflb s'/fx¿sf] hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{ k/LIf0fnfO{ k|of]u ul/G5 . ;fy} lzIfsx?sf] bIftf lgwf{/0f ug{, kf7\oqmdsf p2]Zo k|flKtsf] :t/ lgwf{/0f ug{, ljBfnosf sfo{qmdx?sf] k| efjsfl/tf lgwf{/0f ug{ / kf7\oqmdsf] ;fGble{stf sfod ug{ klg k/LIf0f lgdf{0f / k|of]usf]sfo{ lg/Gt/ ?kdf ul/G5 . 1
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@= k/LIf0f s] xf] < ;fdfGo?kdf s'g}klg j:t', 36gf, lqmofsnfk, k|lqmof, Ifdtf, of]Uotf, u'0f, ljz]iftf, pknlAw cflbnfO{ jf:tljs ?kn] lgwf{/0f ug]{ Jojl:yt sfo{ljlwnfO{ k/LIf0f elgG5 . csf]{ zAbdf s'g} j:t', 36gf, k|lqmof jf lqmofsnfkdf lglxt u'0fx?, ljz]iftfx? tyf ltgsf] dfqf yfxf kfpg ul/g] hfFrsf] k|lqmof g} k/LIf0f xf] . P=s]= l;+x sf cg';f/ k|Zgx?sf] ;+ufnf] g} k/LIf0f xf] . To;}ul/ ljg\ dxf]osf cg';f/ kl/df0fTds / u'0fTds ?kdf s]lx dfgl;s k|s[of, Ifdtf jf ljz]iftfx¿ dfkg ug{sf nflu ;ª\ul7t ?kdf lgDff{0f ul/Psf] pQ]hgfsf] ;"rL g} k/LIf0f xf ] . To;}ul/ cS;kmf]8{ l8S:g]l/df k/LIf0fnfO{ gfdsf]] ?kdf 1fg jf Ifdtf dfkg ug{ pQ/ lbg]ul/ lgdf{0f ul/Psf k|Zgx¿ jf k|bz{g ug'{kg] { lqmofsnfkg} k/LIf0f xf]]]]]] elg pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 . qmf]gAofrn] b'O{ jf ;f]eGbfal9 JolQm x¿sf Jojfxf/x¿nfO{ t'ngf ug]{ Aojl:yt k| s[ofnfO{ o;nfO{ k/LIf0f eg]sf 5g\ . dfly pNn]lvt ljleGg ljåfgx?sf] kl/efiffx?nfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ k/LIf0f eGgfn] ljBfyL{n] pQ/ lbg jf s'g} Ifdtf k|b{zg ug{ lgdf{0f ul/Psf] k|Zgx?sf] ;ª\ufnf] xf] . h;df s'g} vf; If]qdf pQ]hgfxx?sf] ;d"x ;dfj]z x'G5 . h;n] dfgjLo Jojxf/ / pknlAwx?sf] n]vfhf]vf ub{5 . #= P]ltxfl;s ljsf;qmd 2
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k/LIf0fx?sf] ljsf;qmd O;fk"j{ eGbf klg xhf/f}F jif{ klxn] nueu O;fk"j{ @@)) lt/ rLgaf6 ePsf] dflgG5 . ;f] ;dotfsf rLgdf sd{rfl/ 5gf]6 sfo{df o;sf] k|of]u ePsf] kfOG5 . df}lvs k/LIffsf] ;'?jft eg] O;fk"j{ $&)–#(( sf] cjlwdf u|Lssf bfz{lgs ;'s/ftsf] k|Zgf]Q/ ljlwaf6 ePsf] dflgG5 . k/LIf0fsf] ljsf;sf] qmddf dfxfg bfz{lgs Kn]6f]n] ;j{k|yd j}olQms ljleGgtfsf] klxrfg u/] eg] k|frLg :kf6f{af6 z}lIfs k/LIf0fsf] ;'?jft ePsf] kfOG5 . xfn;Dd k|fKt clen]vx? cg';f/ ;g\ 1800 b]lv 1900 ;Ddsf] cjlwdf z}lIfs k/LIf0fsf] ljsf; Pj+ k|of]u ul/Psf] kfO{G5 . o; calwdf ;+o'St/fHo cd]l/ssf] af]:6g /fHosf k|To]s ljBfnox?df ljBfyL{x?sf] k/LIff ;+rfng ug]{ p2]Zosf nflu ljBfno ;ldlt u7g ul/g] k|fjwfg /x]sf] lyof] . ;g\ 1855 b]lv ;+o'Qm clw/fHon] cfGtl/s ;]jfsf nflu k|zf;lgs sd{rf/L 5gf}6 ug{ k/LIf0fx?sf] k|of]u ug{ yfNof] . lj:tf/} o;sf] k|efj k|mfG;, hd{gL cflb cGo o'/f]lkog b]zdf k|;fl/t ePsf] kfOG5 . a]nfotL ljåfg George fisher (1864) n] klxnf] k6s j:t'ut k/LIf0fsf] ljsf; u/]sf lyP eg] o;nfO{ ljsf; ug]{ sfd cd]l/sL ljåfg J.M. Rice n] u/] . ljBfnoLo k/LIf0fsf] ;'?jft eg] cd]l/sL lzIff k|0ffnLaf6 ePsf] xf] . pGgfO;f}F ztfAbLdf s]lx
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