2109_sejda-DYJ.pdf - Chapter 8 Cumulative Impacts...

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Chapter 8 Cumulative Impacts 8-47 Adaptation The primary adaptation options for sea-level rise are retreat, accommodation, and protection (IPCC 2014a citing Nicholls 2011), which are all widely used around the world (IPCC 2014a citing Boateng 2010 and Linham and Nicholls 2010). Retreat allows the impacts of sea-level rise to occur unobstructed as inhabitants pull back from inundated coastlines. Accommodation is achieved by increasing the flexibility of infrastructure and adjusting the use of at-risk coastal zones (IPCC 2014a). Protection is the creation of barriers against sea intrusion with replenished beaches and seawalls. Ecosystem-based protection strategies, which include the protection and restoration of relevant coastal natural systems (IPCC 2014a citing Schmitt et al. 2013), oyster reefs (IPCC 2014a citing Beck et al. 2011), and salt marshes (IPCC 2014a citing Barbier et al. 2011) are increasingly attracting attention (IPCC 2014a citing Munroe et al. 2011). Advances have been made in the United States in the past few years in terms of coastal adaptation, science, and practice, but most coastal managers are still building their capacities for adaptation (GCRP 2014 citing NRC 2010, Carrier et al. 2012, Moser 2009, and Poulter et al. 2009). Some examples of coastal adaptation include integrating natural landscape features with built infrastructure (green and gray infrastructure 21 ) to reduce stormwater runoff and wave attack, constructing seawalls around wastewater treatment plants and pump stations, pumping effluent to higher elevations as sea levels rise, pumping freshwater into coastal aquifers to mitigate salt water infiltration, developing flood-proof infrastructure, relocation of coastal infrastructure away from the coast, and relocation of communities away from high-hazard areas (GCRP 2014). Some examples of ocean adaptation include reducing overfishing, establishing protected areas, and conserving habitat to increase resilience; culturing acid- resistant strains of shellfish; oyster reef and mangrove restoration; coral reef restoration and protection; and developing alternative livelihood options for marine food-producing sectors (GCRP 2014). Food, Fiber, and Forest Products Increases in atmospheric CO 2 , combined with rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns, have begun to affect both agricultural and forest systems (Walthall et al. 2013, GCRP 2014, IPCC 2014c, USDA 2015, USFS 2016, FAO 2015, GCRP 2015). These impacts are expected to become more severe and to affect food security (FAO 2015, GCRP 2015). Observed and Projected Climate Impacts Climate disruptions to agricultural production have increased over the past 40 years and are projected to further increase over the next 25 years. Crop and livestock production projections indicate that climate change effects through 2030 will be mixed (IPCC 2014a, Walthall et al. 2013); however, most predictions for climate change impacts on crop yields by 2050 are negative (Nelson et al. 2014, IPCC 2014a, Müller and Robertson 2014). Currently, yields for some crops are increasing; however, climate change could be diminishing the rate of these increases, inducing a 2.5 percent decrease in yield growth
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