0 review sheets consolodated for entire semester.pdf - BIO 12 Review sheet for exams 1-4 Dr Sherrye Glaser*This review sheet is NOT a substitute for

0 review sheets consolodated for entire semester.pdf - BIO...

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BIO 12 Review sheet for exams 1-4 Dr. Sherrye Glaser ***This review sheet is NOT a substitute for your lecture notes! Any material discussed in lecture can be on the exam. This sheet merely provides an overview of information to rehash key points*** Digestive system- extracts nutrients, salts, and water from food and beverages which are needed for cell growth and maintenance, electrolyte & pH balance, and hydration. The remaining waste is eliminated. Gastroenterology- the study of the digestive tract and diagnosis and treatment of its disorders Nutrients we extract: Water (to maintain hydration, perform hydrolysis reactions) Amino acids (energy source, make proteins) Sugar (energy source, make carbohydrates) Fatty acids (energy source, make lipids) Salts (for pH and electrolyte balance, and chemical reactions) In order to extract these nutrients, we must break down large chunks of food into very tiny pieces, so chemical digestion will be maximally effective. Mechanical (physical) digestion- shredding/crushing food to open up cells and make cellular contents more readily available Teeth and tongue : In the mouth, teeth tear off a portion of food and then shred and crush it in a process called mastication. The tongue manipulates the position of food in the mouth to increase the effectiveness of chewing. In the stomach , muscular contraction churns food as it is also subjected to chemical digestion. This mechanical process increases the efficiency of chemical digestion and produces a nutritious paste called chyme.
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chemical digestion- dissolving / breaking down food with acids and enzymes so nutrients are in a form that is readily absorbable and usable. Digestive enzymes produced by salivary glands, stomach, pancreas and small intestine reduce: polysaccharides into monosaccharides proteins into amino acids fats into monoglycerides and fatty acids nucleic acids into nucleotides Some nutrients are present in a usable form in ingested food and do not require chemical digestion such as: vitamins, free amino acids, minerals, cholesterol, and water five stages of digestion ingestion - selective intake of food digestion mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body absorption - uptake of nutrient molecules into the epithelial cells of the digestive tract and then into the blood and lymph compaction - absorbing water and consolidating the indigestible residue into feces defecation - elimination of feces The digestive tract consists of the alimentary canal (which food passes through) and accessory organs (which assist in digestion, but do not have food pass through them). You should be able to identify the organs of the digestive system and determine which are accessory organs, and which are part of the alimentary canal.
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