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Topic 1: Chromosomes, Mitosis and Meiosis 1. Characterize the genome by defining and describing chromosomes and DNA. 2. Describe the process of mitosis and the cell cycle, including all stages and the outcome. Focus on how the genome is organized so that each daughter cell contains a perfect copy. 3. Describe the process of meiosis, including all stages. Explain how the unique aspects of meiosis result in new combinations of alleles in haploid gametes.
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Topic 1: Big Question How do daughter cells inherit a complete copy of the genome during cell division? Problem : During cell division, every cell needs a complete copy of the genome
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A genome is the complete set of “instructions” for an organism, stored in DNA molecules. These are organized into units of chromosomes. What do these look like?
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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Genomes Prokaryotic Usually 1, circular chromosome No nucleus 0.6 - 10 Mbp Eukaryotic Many, linear chromosomes Confined to nucleus 2.9 - 4,000+ Mbp
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Problem : During cell division, every cell needs a complete copy of the genome In prokaryotes, cell divides through binary fission.
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Problem : During cell division, every cell needs a complete copy of the genome Complicated in eukaryotes because of many chromosomes. Each chromosome has a unique identity Identity seen in karyotype.
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Identifying Chromosomes Chromosome components: Chromosomes can be distinguished by their: shape, banding pattern, and size p arm (short) petite q arm (long)
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Identifying Chromosomes by Shape
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Identifying Chromosomes by Banding Pattern Cartoon Photo Giemsa dye binds to DNA Dark – tightly packed Bright – loosely packed
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Identifying Chromosomes by Size
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