Topic6.pdf - Topic 6 DNA Structure and Genome Organization...

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Topic 6: DNA Structure and Genome Organization 1. Diagram the chemical structure of DNA, understanding how genetic variation is encoded and understanding how the complementary strands store information. Compare DNA structure with RNA structure. 2. Diagram the necessary parts of a chromosome, origin of replication, telomere, and centromere. Discuss the specialized structure of telomeres and centromeres. 3. Survey the types of “noncoding” DNA included in the genome, with a special emphasis on repetitive sequences. 1
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Topic 6: Big Question What makes up a genome?
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Properties of nucleic acids: Chemistry: A polymer: a chain of repeating units Each unit is a nucleotide, made of: a ribose sugar RNA DNA 3 Friedrich Miescher 1869 Characterized chemical makeup
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Properties of nucleic acids: Chemistry: A polymer: a chain of repeating units Each unit is a nucleotide, made of: a ribose sugar a nitrogenous base 4
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Properties of nucleic acids: Chemistry: A polymer: a chain of repeating units Each unit is a nucleotide, made of: a ribose sugar a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group Nucleoside= No Phosphate Nucleo t ide= Has Phosopha t e 5
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Properties of nucleic acids: Chemistry: A polymer: a chain of repeating units Each unit is a nucleotide, made of: a ribose sugar a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group abbreviated dAMP, dGMP, dTMP, and dCMP. 6
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Comparing Nucleic Acids Property DNA RNA Ribose sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Nitrogenous base Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T) Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), uracil (U) Phosphate group Present present 7
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How are the nucleotides arranged in DNA? Chargraff’s rules: Measured the ratio of the four bases in DNA from various organisms. Found A = T and G = C but other ratios may vary 8
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