CognitiveNeuroscience.pptx Day2.pptx - Cognitive...

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Cognitive Neuroscience
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The Nervous System The nervous system has three main components: brain, spinal cord, nerves. Neurons: nerve cells They operate through chemical and electrical activity. They operate through neurotransmitters: neural communication chemicals Neurotransmitters produce excitatory and inhibitory signals. In the brain… Neural networks develop in different ways. Neural networks are organized according to function. 2
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Neuron Structure 3
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Neuron Structure Dendrite: extension from a neuron that receives chemical messages from other neurons Axon: extension from a neuron nucleus that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body Synapse: space between neurons where neurotransmitters are released and received Neurotransmitters are brought into the cell by dendrites, from the synapse. They tell the neuron to fire (excitatory) or not to fire (inhibitory). If the neurotransmitter is excitatory, the neuron fires via axon. * The axon releases more neurotransmitter into the synapse, and the process begins again. 4
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Localization and Lateralization 5
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Localization and Lateralization Lateralization Some neural functions tend to be carried out by one hemisphere. Best example: left lateralization of language Localization What it is… Localization is the idea that different brain areas are specialized for different functions. Networks of neurons (neural networks) underlie cognitive functions, are distributed around the brain.
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