Exam 1.docx - May 7th 2018 Intro May 8th 2018 The Field of...

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May 7th, 2018 Intro May 8th, 2018 The Field of Cognition What is the Mind? The mind is a system that creates representations of the world so that we can act within it to achieve our goals There is a difference between what you sense in the world and what you become aware of in your mind The mind creates and controls mental functions such as perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, deciding, thinking, and reasoning. The mind is creative and controls cognitive functions What is Cognition? Psychology is subfield of cognitive science. Cognitive science: the interdisciplinary study of the nature of the human mind - Other subfields - Artificial intelligence - Psychology - Education - Linguistics - Neuroscience - Anthropology - Philosophy Cognition: The mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through the senses, experiences, and thought Cognitive psychology: The study of cognition Cognition is knowledge and the storing of that knowledge It is a subfield of psychology . - Other subfields - Clinical - Cognition - Sensation and perception - Abnormal - Developmental - Psycholinguistics - Social - Education Modern cognitive psychology was preceded by… - Philosophical investigations of the mind. Cognitive Science Psycholo gy Cognitive Psychology
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- Early psychology. - Behaviorism - The information processing approach. - Early computer science. - Gestalt psychology. - Generative linguistics. Cognitive Psychology Precursors: Philosophy Contributions of Philosophy Plato (387 BC): the brain as the seat of mental processes ~ the idea that the brain and the mind are connected Aristotle (later 300s BC) - Introspection: the systematic investigation of one’s own thoughts; the belief that if you work hard enough you can understand your own mind - Acknowledged that we have minds - Believed that it was possible that if you thought hard enough to understand the workings of the mind René Descartes (1637): mind-body dualism - The mind and the body as separate entities (made of different things ~ the mind was not made of the physical body) - The mind exerts control over the brain - “Innate” ideas and a debate (through the 1800s) - Believes that certain ideas are already planted inside our brains when we are born - Empiricism (John Locke ) vs. nativism (Immanuel Kant ) - Empiricist : Skills and knowledge are learned from the environment - Nativist : ideas and skills are native (hardwired, born in, and possibly genetically determined) Contributions of Early Psychology (Mid-1800s) Donders investigated reaction time and mental processes. - Given some stimulus, how long does it take the human body and mind to react to the stimulus - How long does it take to make a decision? - Examples of Donders’ tasks - Simple reaction time - When you see the red light, pull the lever - Choice reaction time - If you see the red light, pull the right lever & for the blue light pull the left lever Donders demonstrated that reaction time can be used as an outcome measure.
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