Chapt6 Outline.doc - Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture – p 1...

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Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture – p. 1 of 15 Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture I. The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape A. 3 physical states of water in the atmosphere: 1. solid: snow, hail, sleet, etc 2. liquid: rain, water droplets 3. gas: water vapor (most abundant state of atmospheric moisture) B. gas state 1. most important in atmospheric dynamics 2. water vapor stores energy that can incite atmosphere into action II. The Hydrologic Cycle A. hydrologic cycle : unending circulation of our planet’s water supply B. liquid water (primarily from oceans) evaporates into the air condenses to liquid or solid state returns to Earth as precipitation C. important determinant of climate III. The Nature of Water: Commonplace but Unique A. water 1. most widespread substance on Earth’s surface; covers more than 70% of Earth’s surface 2. properties: a. no color, no taste, no smell b. turns solid at 0 o C/32 o F; boils at 100 o C/212 o F B. The Water Molecule 1. covalent bonds: holds 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom together to form water molecule (H 2 O) 2. electrical polarity of water gives it many of its interesting properties, including cohesion C. Properties of Water 1. Liquidity : the fact that water is liquid at the temperatures found most places on Earth enhances its versatility as active agent in the atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere 2. Ice Expansion : water expands as it cools from 39 o F to freezing point 32 o F a. important component of weathering b. ice floats : ice is less dense than water c. lakes freeze from the top down 3. Surface Tension : because of electrical polarity water molecules stick together 4. Capillarity a. action by which water can climb upward in restricted confinement as a result of its surface tension and adhesion b. enables water to circulate upward through rock, soil and the roots and stems of plants 5. Solvent Ability a. universal solvent ” – water can dissolve almost any substance b. water in nature is always impure
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Chapter 6: Atmospheric Moisture – p. 2 of 15 c. moving water carries dissolved minerals and nutrients and tiny solid particles 6. Specific Heat a. water has very high heat capacity: when water is warmed it can absorb an enormous amount of energy with small increase in temperature b. bodies of water are slow to warm up during the day or in summer and slow to cool off at night or in winter water has moderating effect on surrounding temperature IV. Phase Changes of Water A. water found naturally in 3 states on Earth: liquid, solid, gas 1. great majority of world’s moisture in form of liquid water 2. phase changes (Fig 6-4): a. evaporation : 1) change of state from liquid to gas (water vapor) 2) 540-600 calories absorbed b. freezing : 1) change of state from liquid to solid 2) 80 calories released c. condensation : 1) change of state from water vapor (gas) to liquid water 2) 540-600 calories released d. melting: 1) change of state from solid to liquid 2) 80 calories absorbed e. Sublimation/desposition : gas to solid (~680 calories released) or solid to gas directly (~680 calories absorbed) 3. in
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  • Fall '19
  • Water vapor, C. Orographic

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