Lynden Kim Outline 1.docx - Lynden Kim I Understanding the...

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Lynden Kim I. Understanding the Communications Process A. How We Communicate Has Changed Radically 1. Communication: the transmission of information and meaning from a sender to a receiver 2. Communication Process B. Sender Has Idea 1. When senders know their purpose and anticipate the expected response, they are better able to shape successful messages C. Sender Encodes Idea 1. Encoding: converting the idea into words or gestures that will convey meaning 2. Skilled communicators choose familiar, concrete words 3. International messages require even more care 4. Good messages also encourage feedback and make it easy for the receiver to respond D. Sender Selects Channel and Transmits Message 1. Channel: the medium over which the message travels 2. Increasingly carried over digital networks 3. Noise: anything that interrupts the transmission of a message in the communication process E. Receiver Decodes Message 1. Receiver: the individual for whom the message is intended 2. Decoding: translating the message from its symbol form into meaning 3. Successful decoding is more likely to be achieved when the receiver creates a receptive environment and ignores distractions F. Feedback Returns to Sender 1. Feedback: the verbal and nonverbal responses of the receiver 2. Helps the sender know that the message was received and understood 3. Paraphrase to advance understanding 4. Be descriptive rather than evaluative G. Barriers That Create Misunderstanding 1. Bypassing a) Misunderstandings when individuals use words with unclear meanings 2. Differing Frames of Reference a) A barrier to clear communication that occurs when a person’s frame of reference differs from that of others, causing individuals to disagree on perceptions 3. Lack of Language Skill
a) Plain language: clear, concise language that avoids showy words, long sentences, and confusing expressions 4. Distractions a) Emotional interference, physical distractions, and digital interruptions H. Overcoming Communication Obstacles 1. Recognize that the entire process is sensitive and susceptible to breakdown 2. Focus on the receiver’s environment and frame of reference 3. Arrange ideas logically and use words precisely 4. Encourage useful feedback II. Using the 3-x-3 Writing Process as a Guide A. Nearly All Communication Revolves Around Writing 1.

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