Chapter8 - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 8...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–19. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 8 Nuclear Chemistry
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Review of element symbols
Image of page 2
Radiation The emission of energetic particles The study of it and the processes that produce it is called nuclear chemistry. Unlike the chemistry we have studied to this point, nuclear chemistry often results in one element changing into another one.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Writing Isotope Symbols
Image of page 4
Tragedy April 26, 1986, 1:24 am V.I. Lenin nuclear power plant Chernobyl, USSR Explosions in reactor 4 31 immediate deaths, 230 hospitalizations, countless exposures to high level radiation The aftermath continues to this day.
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Other Incidents/Accidents March 28, 1979 September 30, 1999 May 18, 1999 October 1, 1999
Image of page 6
Ordinary chemistry Atomic and molecular changes involving electrons Attainment of the stable octet configuration Nuclear chemistry Atomic changes involving the nuclei Nuclei emit energetic particles we call radiation
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Becquerel Discovered that his paper-wrapped photographic plate was exposed by uranium-containing crystals… Which disproved his hypothesis linking the exposure to UV light and phosphorescence… But it revealed a brand new phenomenon which he termed the emission of uranic rays
Image of page 8
Curie Discovered two new emitters of uranic rays, one was a new element (polonium) Since the rays were not unique to uranium, a new term – radioactivity
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Radioactivity Characterized by Rutherford The result of nuclear instability
Image of page 10
Alpha Radiation Composed of two protons and two neutrons Represented by the symbol for a helium nucleus High ionizing power Low penetrating power
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
Beta Radiation An energetic electron represented by the symbol (beta particle symbol here) Smaller than alpha particles, so more penetrating But this also means less ionizing power
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
In beta decay, a neutron converts to a proton, emitting an electron and increasing the atomic number by 1.
Image of page 14
Gamma Radiation An energetic photon emitted by an atomic nucleus Represented by the symbol γ Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, not matter. Highest penetrating power, lowest ionizing power
Image of page 15

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Half-Life The time required for half of the nuclei in a sample to decay
Image of page 16
Half-Life
Image of page 17

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nuclear Fission General idea: If nuclei emit particles to form lighter elements, they might also absorb particles to form heavier elements.
Image of page 18
Image of page 19
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern