Chapter8 - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 8...

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Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 8 Nuclear Chemistry
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Review of element symbols
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Radiation The emission of energetic particles The study of it and the processes that produce it is called nuclear chemistry. Unlike the chemistry we have studied to this point, nuclear chemistry often results in one element changing into another one.
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Writing Isotope Symbols
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Tragedy April 26, 1986, 1:24 am V.I. Lenin nuclear power plant Chernobyl, USSR Explosions in reactor 4 31 immediate deaths, 230 hospitalizations, countless exposures to high level radiation The aftermath continues to this day.
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Other Incidents/Accidents March 28, 1979 September 30, 1999 May 18, 1999 October 1, 1999
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Ordinary chemistry Atomic and molecular changes involving electrons Attainment of the stable octet configuration Nuclear chemistry Atomic changes involving the nuclei Nuclei emit energetic particles we call radiation
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Becquerel Discovered that his paper-wrapped photographic plate was exposed by uranium-containing crystals… Which disproved his hypothesis linking the exposure to UV light and phosphorescence… But it revealed a brand new phenomenon which he termed the emission of uranic rays
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Curie Discovered two new emitters of uranic rays, one was a new element (polonium) Since the rays were not unique to uranium, a new term – radioactivity
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Radioactivity Characterized by Rutherford The result of nuclear instability
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Alpha Radiation Composed of two protons and two neutrons Represented by the symbol for a helium nucleus High ionizing power Low penetrating power
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Beta Radiation An energetic electron represented by the symbol (beta particle symbol here) Smaller than alpha particles, so more penetrating But this also means less ionizing power
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In beta decay, a neutron converts to a proton, emitting an electron and increasing the atomic number by 1.
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Gamma Radiation An energetic photon emitted by an atomic nucleus Represented by the symbol γ Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, not matter. Highest penetrating power, lowest ionizing power
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Half-Life The time required for half of the nuclei in a sample to decay
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Half-Life
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General idea: If nuclei emit particles to form lighter elements, they might also absorb particles to form heavier elements. The result would be a
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2008 for the course CHEM 1016 taught by Professor Eddleton during the Spring '08 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter8 - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 8...

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