Chapter9edit - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 9...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 9 Energy for Today Molecules in Motion • A burn is the transfer of energy (too much of it for comfort) from a hot object to the human body. • The atoms and molecules are in constant motion. • The hotter an object is, the faster its molecules move. Fundamental Concepts • Heat is the flow of energy due to a temperature difference. • Energy, and our use of it, is ultimately tied to molecular motion. • We use energy to move atoms and molecules in a nonrandom or orderly motion. • This use of energy is called WORK. Reliance on Energy • Without it, our most common tasks become impossible. The average U.S. citizen enjoys the energy output of 120 people at the flip of a switch or the push of a pedal. Energy Vocabulary • Thermodynamics – the study of energy and its transformation from one form to another • Energy – the capacity to do work • Work – a force acting over a distance • Total energy of an object – the sum of its kinetic energy (motion) and its potential energy (position) Vocabulary (continued) • Thermal energy – the energy associated with the temperature of an object • System – the subject we are thermodynamically studying • Surroundings – the environment in which the system is exchanging energy The First Law of Thermodynamics • Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only transferred between the system and the surroundings. – An exception occurs in nuclear processes where mass and energy are interchangeable as E = mc 2 . Implications of the First Law • We cannot create energy that was not there to begin with; a device that continuously produces energy, without the need for energy input, cannot exist....
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Chapter9edit - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 9...

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