Chapter13 - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 13...

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Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 13 Acids and Bases: The Molecules Responsible for Sour and Bitter
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Introduction Sourness in foods is caused by acids, molecules that release protons. The chemical opposite, bases, are all around us.
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Properties of Acids Acids do dissolve metals, but not with the speed alluded to in movies or television.
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Properties (continued) Acids have the ability to react with bases to form water and a salt through neutralization reactions. Acids turn litmus paper red. Bases turn litmus paper blue. Acids are considered to be dangerous materials. Dissolve clothing, burn skin, damage gastrointestinal tract, kill
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Properties of Bases Slippery feel Bitter taste Ability to react with acids to form water and a salt in neutralization reactions Bases turn litmus paper blue.
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Properties (continued) Bases are found in many cleaning products. Burn skin and damage gastrointestinal tract on contact
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Molecular Definitions Arrhenius Acids produce hydrogen ions (H + ) in solution. Bases produce hydroxide ions (OH - ) in solution. But Arrhenius’ definitions do not apply in all cases. What about ammonia?
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Definition (continued) Brønsted-Lowry Broader definition Works in solutions that do not contain water Focuses on the transfer of protons (H + ions)
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