Lecture3 - Sustainable Development of Mineral and Energy...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Sustainable Development of Mineral and Energy Resources Lecture #3 Mineral and Energy Resources: Availability and Production Trends
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Sources n “Breaking New Ground: Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development” pages 34-83 n Mineral Commodities Summary 2006, U. S. Geological Survey http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/ n Historical US Statistics for Mineral Commodities: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/of01-006/ n U. S. Geological Survey, Minerals Information: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/timeline/2 n Mining Engineering, SME, June 2003 n “Mineral Resources Economics and the Environment” pages 55-81 n The International Energy Agency: http://www.iea.org/ n “Toward A Sustainable Energy Future” pages 14-74
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Lecture Outline n Definitions n Minerals Availability n Global Resources and Reserves n Production Trends
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Basic Mining Definitions n Mine : An excavation in the earth to extract minerals. n Mining : The activity, occupation and industry concerned with the extraction of minerals. n Mineral : Is a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and a characteristic chemical composition, crystal form and physical properties. n Rock : Any naturally formed aggregate of one or more types of mineral particles.
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Basic Resource Economics Definitions n Resources : A concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid or gaseous material in such a form and quantity that it has the potential for eventual economic extraction. n Reserves : Is the portion of the mineral resource that can be economically mined at a given moment in time. n Ore : A mineral deposit that has sufficient utility and value to be mined at a profit. n Gangue : The valueless mineral particles within an ore deposit that must be discarded (is a particular waste). n Waste : The material associated with the ore deposited that must be mined to get the ore and must then discarded.
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Types of Mineral Resources -Metallic n Metallic Ores: Those from which specific metallic elements are extracted. Often, several metals occur in the same deposit. u Ferrous : Contain iron and other elements that are used in the manufacture of steel alloys, e.g., iron, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, chromium u Nonferrous Metals : Are not closely associated with steel making. t Light Metals – Have lower density than most metals, e.g., aluminum, magnesium, titanium t Base Metals – Named by medieval alchemists who could not convert them to precious metals, e.g., copper, lead, zinc, tin t Precious Metals – Most valued mineral resources, e.g., gold, silver, platinum group, gems t Radioactive Minerals – Exhibit radioactive properties, e.g., uranium, thorium, radium
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Types of Mineral Resources – Nonmetallic/Industrial n Nonmetallic Ores: Are used to recover and manufacture numerous distinctive commodities. Usually are composed of abundant minerals and have a relatively low per-ton value.
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