Lecture4-1 - Sustainable Development of Mineral and Energy...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Sustainable Development of Mineral and Energy Resources Lecture #4 Growth and Demand for Minerals and Energy Resources
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Sources n “Breaking New Ground: Mining, Minerals, and Sustainable Development” pages 34-83, 86-109 n “Toward A Sustainable Energy Future” pages 14-74 n United Nations website: n Energy Information Administration website: n Environmental Mining Council of British Columbia website: n n Historical Statistics for Mineral Commodities in the US: n The International Energy Agency: n The Outlook for Metals Markets - Paper produced by World Bank Group Staff for the G20 meeting in Melbourne, November 18th-19th, 2006
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Lecture Outline n Consumption Patterns and Growth n Global Needs n Availability and Forecast
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Growth in Raw Materials n Significant growth demands for all types of raw materials n Unparallel growth rates in some regions of the world n Tremendous increase of non-renewables
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World Consumption Almost Doubled US Consumes About 1/3 of Global Production
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Changes, Period 1900 –1995 Const. Materials: 35 to 60% Agric. & Forestry: 60 to 5%
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In 1900, 41% of all materials renewable In 2000, 6% renewable
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Materials Stewardship and the Minerals/Metals Life Cycle n Process Stewardship : In early stages of life cycle primary stewardship activities are focused on efficiency and productivity of resource development, minimizing environmental risks and reducing health and safety risks. n Product Stewardship: As raw materials move to widespread use, stewardship responsibility expands to include process technologies, re- cycling and re-use
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Growth in Energy Demand n Significant growth demands for all types of energy n Almost exponential growth in some regions of the world n Meeting electricity demands is vital for economic and social progress in the developing world
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Region/Country 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 1993 World 657 869 1202 1316 1432 1396 Europe 1186 1680 2576 3037 3293 3550 FSU 1024 1910 2842 3821 4642 ----- N. America 3858 4093 5382 5152 5271 5264 S. America 233 368 515 716 748 780 Africa 105 144 196 284 313 307 Asia 53 190 266 413 591 680 Oceania 1367 1786 2528 3121 3957 3962 USA 5140 5535 7436 7163 7526 7570 UK 2573 2945 3352 3300 3735 3910 Growth in Energy Demand Energy Consumption by Region/Country (kg of oil equivalent per capita)
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Economic Class World Population (%) 1980 1994 % Change (1980-94) 1980 1994 1994 Low Income 271 384 42 9.7 15.2 56.8 Lower Middle Income ------ 1,593 ------- 27.4 21.0 19.6 Upper Middle Income 1,297 1,715 32 7.1 10.1 8.4 High Income 4,822 5,168 7 55.8 54.7 15.2 Energy Consumption (kg oil equivalent per capita) World Energy Consumption (%) Per Capita Energy Consumption by Economic Classes
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World Energy Consumption by Region, 1970-2025 (Quadrillion Btu)
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0 25 50 75 100 125 150 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel (quadrillion Btu) Natural Gas Petroleum Coal Nuclear Renewables
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