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Revolutionary Age: From Lexington and Concord to The BastilleEnlightenment ideas including popular sovereignty, notion of universal rights- the enlightenment period was radical & challenged people’s traditional thoughts, after the 7 yrs war Britain taxed colonists were triggered bc they had no representation in congress, popular sovereignty: the idea that political power depends on the people, which was rooted in the idea of the nation ~ new language of freedomThomas Paine’s Common Sense- he moved from England to America & published this pamphlet that attacks the idea of a hereditary monarchy, and claims it is “common sense” for people to govern themselves, and suggests to find liberty & happiness self sufficiently John Locke and the social contract- it claims to bind the ruler & people, he also wrote people have the right to rebel against government if it broke the contract & infringed on their rights,he wrote the “Second Treatise on Government” after the glorious revolution (ensured England would have a constitutional monarchy) bc he claims that a civil society is based on the protection of property Montesquieu and separation of powers- he believes that the monarchy should be broken up, legislative/executive/judicial- toprovide checks & balancesStamp and Sugar Acts and other events leading to American Declaration of Independence- revolutionaries usually start w a plea to reform, and these two acts got the ball rolling- all it really was is no taxation without representation & that laws should apply to all, the rebels declare that their rights of allmen are created equal, and rid themselves from the English king,but this basically was only for the white men, women & slaves (blacks) were not included to have these rights, treaty of parisin 1783 granted independencebuilding a republican government: American Articles of Confederation and U.S. Constitution- building the government wastricky & heated because everyone had fear of repeating past experiences, the articles of confederation sucked because there was not enough power in the national government (executive branch), the new U.S. constitution had a Bill of Rights to protect some individual liberties from an abusive government, anti-federalists were against the new constitution free trade (laissez-faire)- this is the belief that economies & businesses function best without the interference by the government, this is the guiding principle to capitalism/free market economies1
role of Spain, Holland, and especially France (recall Lafayette)in aiding the American colonists in their bid for independence- Spain: they wanted to regain the land they lost, and gain other british possessions in other parts of the world Holland: dutch weapons were supplied to those rebellingFrance: they allied with the Americans & provided them with a lot of things, Marquis of Lafayette famously sailed from France to the U.S. & became good friends with commander in chief GeorgeWashington impact of the American Revolution on women, Native Americans, and African Americans (e.g. Gabriel Prosser’s attempted