APUSH Unit 1 - APUSH UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE Colonization to...

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APUSH UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE Colonization to Revolution (Ch. 1-5)Pre-Columbian SocietiesEarly inhabitants of the Americas Bering land bridge – 15,000-20,000 years agoThe environment during the time-- extremely cold due to ice agePaleo-Indians-- the first people who entered, and subsequently inhabited the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene periodAgricultural Revolution: the shift from nomadic hunters and gatherers to permanent villagesAmerican Indian empires in Mesoamerica, the Southwest, and the Mississippi Valley Diplomacy (Indian Confederacies formed), trade, war, diversity, cultureAnasazi cultureChaco Canyonirrigation system, roads for transportationAdena and Hopewellpeoples—Ohio Valleylarge ceremonial mounds, trade networkCahokia—Mississippi Valley large ceremonial mounds, trade network Wampanoags-- a member of a confederacy of North American peoples of southeastern Massachusetts who spoke the extinct Algonquian language MassachusettFood that was used from America’s in Columbian Exchange? marigolds, pineapples, chili peppers, papayas, corn, peanuts, potatoesTransatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492–1690Amerigo Vespucci – First European contacts with American Indians Tribes on the Atlantic Coast faced European contact first and were, therefore, most quickly impacted/transformed as a result.Iroquois—central new yorkPowhattan—Chesapeake interacted with Jamestown settlers, attacked in 1622 and 1644Roanoke(1588)– the “lost colony” sir Walter Raleigh and john white Sir Walter Raleigh-- English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy, and explorer. well known for popularizing tobacco in England.John White-- settler among those who sailed with Richard Grenville to present-day North Carolina in 1585, acting as artist and mapmaker to the expedition.Effects of European contact on Indians – death, lack of immunity to European diseases, violence, trade (fur trade with french in exchange for weapons, metals)Spain’s empire in North America (By 1650, Spaniards in New World, mostly males who intermarried with Native population - mestizos?)Catholicism-- adherence to the forms or Christian doctrine and practice which are generally regarded as catholic rather than protestant or eastern orthodoxChristopher Columbus-- Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across Atlantic ocean under the auspices of the catholic monarchs of Castile and Aragon.Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)-- an agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts
over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15th century voyagers.Conquistadores:conquered aztecs in mexico in 1521, pizarro conquered incas in peruCortes– Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec empire andbrought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the king of Castile in the early16th century. searching for “god, gold, and glory”Pizarro

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