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Sputnik 1 (which is Russian for Traveling Companion) launched on October 4, 1957 from the Soviet Union’s rocket testing facility in the desert near Tyuratam in the Kazakh Republic.[ CITATION Lau05 \l 1033 ] The successful launch and orbital placement of the first artificial satellite came as a shock to both experts and the citizens of the United States.[ CITATION Unind\l 1033 ] Many Americans feared that with the Soviet Union’s capability to place a satellite in orbit they were also capable of hitting the United States with a nuclear weapon. Many journalistsaround the world were reporting that the Soviet Union has surpassed being America’s technical and scientific equal and was now superior to the United States.[ CITATION Buz \l 1033 ] President Eisenhower attempted to downplay the launch of Sputnik to the American people. However, the sense of safety that was once shared by the United States and the rest of the world was demolished once Sputnik was circling the globe. Ham radio operators could listen to it beep