1. How the elements found in the universe were formed.pptx...

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HOW THE ELEMENTS FOUND INTHE UNIVERSE WERE FORMEDNUCLEOSYNTHESIS: THE BEGINNING OF ELEMENTS
HOW THE ELEMENTS FOUND IN THE UNIVERSEWERE FORMEDNucleosynthesis: The Beginning of ElementsLearning Competencies 1 to 41.The Formation of the Light Elements in the BigBang Theory2.The Formation of Heavier Elements during StarFormation and Evolution3.The Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Stars4.How Elements Heavier than Iron are Formed
NUCLEOSYNTHESIS: THE BEGINNING OF ELEMENTSWhat is Big BangTheory?The big bang theory is acosmological modelstating that theuniverse started itsexpansion about 13.8billion years ago. Piecesof evidence supportingthis theory are (1)occurrence of redshift,(2) backgroundThe Formation of the Light Elementsin the Big Bang Theory
RedshiftIn the 1910s, Vesto Slipher and Carl Wilhelm Wirtzmeasured the wavelengths of light from spiralnebulae, which are interstellar clouds of dust andionized gases. They discovered that the light fromthenebulaeincreasedinwavelength.Theyexplained their discovery as a Doppler shift.The Doppler shift or Doppler effect explains thatwhen an object gets closer to us, its light waves arecompressed into shorter wavelengths (blueshifted).On the other hand, when an object moves awayfrom us, its light waves are stretched into longerwavelengths (redshifted).NUCLEOSYNTHESIS: THE BEGINNING OF ELEMENTSThe Formation of the Light Elementsin the Big Bang Theory
RedshiftSlipher and Wirtz then explained that the redshift orincrease in wavelength was due to the increase inthe distance between the Earth and the nebulae.They concluded that the redshift occurred due tothe expansion of space.In 1929, Edwin Hubble used the redshift of lightfromgalaxiestocalculatethevelocitiesanddistances of these galaxies from the Earth. Hediscovered that they were moving away from theEarthandfromeachother.HiscalculationssupportedthetheorythattheuniverseisNUCLEOSYNTHESIS: THE BEGINNING OF ELEMENTSThe Formation of the Light Elementsin the Big Bang Theory
Cosmic Microwave BackgroundRadiationIn 1965, Robert Wilson andArno Penzias discovered alow,steady“hum”fromtheir Holmdel Horn antenna(an antenna built to supportNASA’s Project Echo). Theyconcluded that the noise isCosmicMicrowaveBackgroundRadiation(CMBR),theremainsofenergy created after the bigNUCLEOSYNTHESIS: THE BEGINNING OF ELEMENTSThe Formation of the Light Elementsin the Big Bang Theory
Abundance of LightElementsThe observed abundance of light elements supportsthe big bang theory. The theory predicts that theuniverse is composed of 73% hydrogen and 25%helium by mass. The prediction correlated to themeasured abundances of primordial material inunprocessed gas in some parts of the universe withno stars.

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