MBABESUK_SB_6_2016.pdf - FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND LAW SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT D I S T A N C E L E A R N I N G M B A 2015\/16 MAN4304M Business Ethics and

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Unformatted text preview: FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT AND LAW SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT D I S T A N C E L E A R N I N G M B A 2015/16 MAN4304M Business Ethics and Sustainability MODULE STUDY BOOK Study Book: Business Ethics and Sustainability Copyright © University of Bradford 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 First published 2011 Second UK edition 2012 Third edition 2013 Fourth edition 2014 Fifth edition 2015 Sixth edition 2016 MBABESUK-SB-6-2016 MAN4304M University of Bradford Richmond Road Bradford BD7 1DP Bradford University School of Management Director of Studies Jonathan Muir Programme Leader Ian Fouweather Programme Administrators Gavin Turner [email protected] (Distance Learning MBA) Emma Pheasant [email protected] (Dubai and Bradford Executive MBA) Module Development and Module Leader Eshani Beddewela Bradford University School of Management Emm Lane Bradford BD9 4JL Tel: 01274 234374 Website: This Study Book may not be sold, hired out or reproduced in part or in whole in any form or by any means whatsoever without the University’s prior consent in writing. 2 Bradford MBA Contents Introduction to the Module 7 Your module leader Overview of Module and Module Descriptor Assessment criteria Support for your learning 7 8 10 15 Developing good academic practice Module feedback from previous students 20 20 Unit 1: Introduction to Business Ethics 23 Introduction 24 Objectives What is business ethics? Business ethics in different organisational contexts Globalisation: a key context for business ethics? Sustainability: a key goal for business ethics? Summary 25 25 31 32 35 37 Additional learning resources References 38 39 Unit 2: Framing Business Ethics – Corporate Responsibility, Stakeholders and Citizenship 41 Introduction Objectives What is a corporation? Corporate social responsibility Stakeholder theory of the firm Corporate Citizenship – the firm as a political actor 42 42 42 44 50 52 Summary Additional learning resources References 56 57 58 Unit 3: Evaluating Business Ethics – Normative Ethical Theories Introduction Objectives Role of ethical theory Bradford MBA 61 61 62 62 3 Study Book: Business Ethics and Sustainability Normative ethical theories: North American and European origins and differences Western modernist ethical theories Alternative perspectives on ethical theories Summary Additional learning resources References 63 64 67 70 73 74 Unit 4: Making Decisions in Business Ethics – Descriptive Ethical Theories 75 Introduction 75 Objectives What is an ethical decision? Models of ethical decision-making Individual influences on ethical decision-making 76 76 76 79 Situational influences on decision-making Summary Additional learning resources References 83 88 89 89 Unit 5: Managing Business Ethics – Tools and Techniques of Business Ethics Management Introduction Objectives What is business ethics management? Designing and implementing codes of ethics Managing stakeholder relations Assessing ethical performance Organising for business ethics management Summary Additional learning resources References 93 94 94 95 95 100 103 106 108 110 110 Unit 6: Stakeholders: Shareholders and Employees 113 Introduction Objectives Shareholders as stakeholders: understanding corporate governance 113 114 Ethical issues in corporate governance Shareholders and globalisation Shareholders as citizens of the corporation 117 120 122 4 114 Bradford MBA Contents Shareholding for sustainability Employees as stakeholders Ethical issues in firm–employee relations Employing people worldwide: ethical challenges of globalisation Corporate citizen and employee relations Towards sustainable employment Summary Additional learning resources References 123 125 125 132 133 133 136 136 137 Unit 7: Stakeholders: Consumers, Suppliers and Competitors 141 Introduction Objectives Consumers as stakeholders Ethical issues, marketing andthe consumer Consumer sovereignty and the politics of purchasing Suppliers and competitors as stakeholders Ethical sourcing and fair trade Sustainable consumption and industrial ecosystems Summary 142 143 143 144 149 151 157 159 163 Additional learning resources References 165 166 Unit 8: Stakeholders: Civil Society, Government and Regulation 171 Introduction Objectives CSOs as stakeholders Ethical issues in relation to CSOs, business and government Globalisation and CSOs Corporate citizenship, civil society and regulation 171 173 173 174 176 176 Government as a stakeholder Governments, business and sustainability Summary Additional learning resources References 180 188 189 190 194 Unit 9: Revision and Summary – and a Look to the Future 199 Introduction Objectives Bradford MBA 199 200 5 Study Book: Business Ethics and Sustainability Nature and scope of business ethics Globalisation as a context for business ethics Sustainability as a goal of business ethics Corporate citizenship and business ethics Contribution of normative ethical theories to business ethics Influences on ethical decision-making and the role of management tools in business ethics Role of different stakeholder constituencies in business ethics Trade-offs and conflicts between different stakeholder groups Summary 200 201 202 204 205 References 209 205 206 207 207 Appendix A: Module Descriptor 211 Appendix B: Model Answers to Activities 215 6 Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 215 222 225 228 232 237 244 Unit 8 248 Bradford MBA Introduction to the Module Your module leader Eshani Beddewela is a Teaching Associate within Bradford University School of Management’s Marketing, Strategy and International Business Group and is also a Senior Lecturer in Corporate Social Responsibility at the University of Huddersfield’s Business School. She has over ten years’ experience in delivering undergraduate as well as postgraduate courses across a variety of higher education institutions in the United Kingdom and in Sri Lanka. Eshani is a past Commonwealth Scholar and holds a PhD in International Business and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), a Master of Arts degree in International Business (with distinction) and a Postgraduate Diploma in Research Methods from the Bradford University School of Management. Eshani’s Doctoral Degree examined the internal implementation of corporate responsibility practices within multinational enterprises (MNEs). Eshani’s research interests consist of investigating corporate social responsibility in the multinational corporation, political dimensions of CSR and micro-foundations of CSR. Eshani is presently involved in the following research projects related to her main research interests: Firm-level antecedents of CSR Governance of CSR in controversial sectors Institutional duality and transfer of CSR in Multinational Corporations Integrative perspectives of CSR and corporate political activity at the firm-level. Eshani’s teaching experience includes a number of subjects such as Business Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, International Business Strategy and International Business in Emerging Economies. She was previously attached to the School of Business and Management of the University of Gloucestershire, and the Faculty of Management and Finance of the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, and has also held several positions as a visiting lecturer in Sri Lanka. Prior to entering academia, Eshani worked for several years as a human resources manager in a large public sector pharmaceutical company in Sri Lanka. Bradford MBA 7 Study Book: Business Ethics and Sustainability Selected publications Journal Articles Shirodkar, V., Beddewela, E. and Richter, U.H. (2016) Firm-Level Determinants of Political CSR in Emerging Economies: Evidence from India. Journal of Business Ethics: 1–16. Beddewela, E. and Fairbrass, J. (2015) Seeking Legitimacy Through CSR: Institutional Pressures and Corporate Responses of Multinationals in Sri Lanka. Journal of Business Ethics: 1–20. Beddewela, E. and Herzig, C. (2013) Corporate social reporting by MNCs subsidiaries in Sri Lanka. Accounting Forum, 37(2): 135–149. Book chapters Warin, C. and Beddewela, E. (2016) The Drivers and Barriers of Institutionalizing PRME. In Sunley, R., Leigh, J. and Murray, A. (editors), Educating for Responsible Management. United Kingdom: Greenleaf Publications. Haloub, R. and Beddewela, E. (2014) Creating ethical awareness through interactive group work. In Murray, A., Baden, D., Cashian, P., Wersin, A. and Haynes, K. (editors) Inspirational Guide for the Implementation of PRME. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing. Beddewela, E. (2013) Evaluating ‘Honesty’ When Implementing Corporate Community Initiatives: A Developing Country Perspective. In Vissak, T. and Vadi, M. (editors) (Dis)honesty in Management: Manifestations and Consequences. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited: 271–292. Overview of Module and Module Descriptor The aim of the module is to provide you with a systematic knowledge and understanding of business ethics and sustainability, as informed by current research and business practice. The module will also enable you to develop a critical awareness of the management and organisational challenges associated with the implementation of business ethics and sustainability at the level of the individual organisation. This module is designed to enable you to: 8 Bradford MBA Introduction to the Module demonstrate a systematic and critical understanding of management knowledge and awareness of current business problems in relation to business ethics and sustainability, informed by current research and business practice demonstrate a broad and rigorous understanding of techniques associated with business ethics and sustainability evaluate critically current research and advanced scholarship in relation to business ethics and sustainability demonstrate originality in tackling and solving business ethics and sustainability problems deal with complex issues both systematically and creatively, make sound judgements, and prepare effective and concise written reports. Please see Appendix A for the module descriptor. As shown below the module examines three main areas related to Business Ethics and Sustainability: Ethical Analysis – Units 2, 3 and 4 will provide students with a sound understanding of business ethics theories Management Analysis – Unit 5 will introduce students to a range of tools and techniques available for managing business ethics and sustainability in corporations. Organisational Issues – Units 6, 7 and 8 will examine a range of ‘ethics, sustainability and corporate responsibility’ issues which corporations encounter when dealing with their stakeholders. Collectively these three key aspects of the module, will enable you to apply selected theories, frameworks, tools and techniques to an identified organisational issue and provide viable recommendations in your final assignment. Bradford MBA 9 Study Book: Business Ethics and Sustainability Assessment criteria The assessment for this module comprises of 100% Individual Coursework. Overview The assignment requires you to submit an individual 2,000-word report. It consists 100% of the module mark. The report appendices must not exceed 15 pages. Assignment aim Overall the purpose of this assignment is for you to demonstrate your understanding of business ethics and sustainability, including the application of ethical theories as well as the management of stakeholder related ethical and sustainability issues. The assignment will require knowledge of all the module materials up to and including Unit 8. You are advised to read the notes carefully and follow the guidelines provided. Failure to comply with the guidelines may lead to a reduction in grades. Assignment task Key assumptions You should select an organisational issue which you personally experienced, such as that of the implementation of a new project, adoption of a new organisational policy, stakeholder conflict situation, or any other organisational practice related issue. It is important that you personally experienced the selected organisational issue. However, this does not mean that you have to be a key stakeholder of the organisational issue itself. The selected organisational issue should also be sufficiently complex, so that it can be analysed in-depth, examining its multiple facets, including the potential for optional decision choices, but not too complex as to not be possible to discuss in depth within the word limit. The organisation selected can be either a profit-making enterprise or a not-for-profit making enterprise (e.g. a public sector organisation or a charity). You can use a wide variety of theoretical perspectives on ethics, CSR and sustainability to answer the assignment questions. We advise that you make use of different categories of perspectives: 10 Bradford MBA Introduction to the Module – broad theories of ethics and ethical decision-making (consequentialist, non-consequentialist, etc.) – perspectives on the efficacy of specific management tools and techniques that can be used to foster ethical and responsible conduct in organisations – perspectives on ethical issues relating to specific stakeholder groups. However, remember that your essay must remain within the word limit. You do not need to use a large number of theories or management tools and techniques. Rather, select your theoretical perspectives carefully, specifically considering how different perspectives will practically help you illuminate different aspects of your organisational situation and help you generate solutions to it. Report contents The assignment should not be more than 2,000 words and its appendices must not exceed 15 pages. It should be written in an essay format and be word-processed. It must follow standard academic writing conventions in terms of referencing. The essay should include the following key sections: 1. Overview of the organisational issue 2. Ethical analysis of the selected organisational issue 3. Management analysis of the selected organisational issue 4. Recommendations for resolving the organisational issue The analyses carried out and the recommendations provided should be based on your learning as well as business ethics and sustainability literature as well as data gathered through your own research. If you are using detailed data (statistics, and material that defines or explains the meanings of terms used in the report, etc.) to support your discussions in the main body of the assignment, these should be put in appendices. These appendices will not count towards the 2,500 word limit. However, appendices cannot be used to overcome the word limit by including material that should be in the body of the report. Elements to be included in the assignment 1. Overview of the organisational Issue You should provide a detailed overview of the selected organisational issue. You can examine aspects such as ‘how’ the issue originated, and Bradford MBA 11 Study Book: Business Ethics and Sustainability its subsequent development within the organisation as well as the key stakeholders involved in it. It is advisable to adopt a longitudinal analysis where applicable. 2. Ethical analysis of the organisational issue First, please explain why the issue you selected is ethically problematic. You should describe and evaluate the problematic dimensions of the identified organisational issue applying one consequentialist theory and one non-consequentialist theory. Please be aware that the application of different theories of ethics may not necessarily yield the same conclusions (e.g. the outcomes may be appropriate, but the means of achieving them may not be). You are advised to utilise sufficient data (both internal and external) within your analysis. 3. Management analysis of the selected organisational issue You should describe and evaluate how the management of the organisation addressed, are planning to address or did not address the selected organisational issue. This assessment should provide sufficient details related to which specific management decisions were taken (or are to be taken), related to the specific aspects of the organisational issue and/or stakeholders. The assessment of management’s actions should be critical and well supported by related academic and practitioner literature. You can use a variety of perspectives from the module to conduct your evaluation – broad theories of ethics, CSR and sustainability, readings relating to the efficacy of specific management tools and techniques used to encourage ethical conduct in organisations, and perspective relating to ethical issues in particular stakeholder groups. 4. Recommendations for resolving the organisational issue Based on your previous analyses, and incorporating your learning related to different stakeholders’ ethical and responsibility issues, you should provide specific recommendations for the selected organisation to resolve the organisational issue. It is crucial that you consider carefully and explain how your recommendations may be practically applicable. It is important that your recommendations are supported by sufficient literature, including related data where applicable. General issues The report should be referenced and contain a reference list. There should not be a bibliography. See the next pages for advice about how to reference when using only a reference list. 12 Bradford MBA Introduction to the Module In the next sections you will find some specific guidelines and notes, which should assist in the essay writing process. Additional support can be sought from your module tutor via e-mail. Writing the essay The following provides specific guidance on writing the essay. The report should contain the following: A table of contents. An overview of the selected organisational issue (around 500 words). Ethical analysis of the selected organisational issue Management analysis of the selected organisational issue Proposed recommendations for resolving the organisational issue A brief conclusion section that summarises the key aspects of the essay (around 200 words) A reference list. Any appendices that you have used (these appendices should not exceed 15 pages) Background research Library and Internet sources, as well as internal organisational data should provide the foundation for material for this essay. Engaging in the weekly discussion forums will also help you to write your assignment. Remember this is not a reflective analysis of the selected organisational issue. Relevant sources of information and literature have to be used effectively to sufficiently justify your various analyses and subsequent recommendations provided. In order to avoid this, it is important that you read business ethics and sustainability literature including the recommended additional reading materials. Referencing and appendices You are asked to prepare a list of references for this assignment. There is often confusion between references and bibliographies and uncertainty over what should and what should not appear in an appendix. Note: there should be no bibliography in the report. Report marking The standard school of management marking criteria will be used to assess your work. However, you may wish to also consider the following aspects before you submit your report: Bradford MBA 13 Study Book: Business Ethics and Sustainability 1. Research and preparation – you need to use relevant literature and show you have put it to good use by referencing it usefully within the text. References must be appropriate for the topics covered, and used efficiently, as part of a good preparation. 2. Analysis and argument are major requirements in your report. Identifying the organisational issue itself is not sufficient, you also need to analyse it effectively and for this your arguments should be based on relevant literature. 3. Finally, make sure the essay style is correct. The format and the language must be carefully checked. Use clear division into sections, page numbering, orderly layou...
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