INDUS RIVER VALLEY THE HARAPPAN CIVILISATION 2. The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly present-day Pakistan and northwest India. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar - Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna; it extended west to the Makran coast of Baluchistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest ancient civilization. 3. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft like carnelian products, seal carving and metallurgy of copper, bronze, lead and tin. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system and multistoried houses. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. 4. The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa, excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. 5. The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo- Dravidian language family is favored by a section of scholars. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Up to 1,999, over 1,056 cities and settlements have been found, out of which 96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar - Hakra river and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo- Daro, Dholavira, Kalibangan, and Rakhigarhi. 6. The Great Bath of Mohenjo-Daro is called as "earliest public water tank of the ancient world". The Great Bath measures 55 meters x 33 meters, and has a maximum depth of 2.43 meters. Two wide staircases, one from the north and one from the south and east , served as the entry to the structure. A 1 meter wide and 40 centimeters mound at present at end of these stairs. A hole was also found at one end of the Bath which might have been used to drain the water into it. The Great Bath is built of fine baked bricks lined with bitumen , which indicates that it was used for holding water. Many scholars have suggested that it could have been a place for ritual bathing or religious ceremonies, but the actual use is not clear.
7. DISCOVERY AND EXCAVATION 8.
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